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Cao H.,Shantou University | Li L.,Shantou University | Zhang M.,Joint Shantou International Eye Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: The burden and pattern of ocular trauma in China are poorly known and not well studied. We aimed at studying the epidemiological characteristics of patients hospitalized for ocular trauma at major ophthalmology departments in the largest industrial base of plastic toys in China. Methods: A retrospective study of ocular trauma cases admitted to 3 tertiary hospitals in China from 1st January 2001 to 31st December 2010 was performed. Results: The study included a total of 3,644 injured eyes from 3,559 patients over the 10-year period: 2,008 (55.1%) open-globe injuries, 1,580 (43.4%) closed-globe injuries, 41 (1.1%) chemical injuries, 15 (0.4%) thermal injuries and 678 (18.6%) ocular adnexal injuries. The mean age of the patients was 29.0±16.8 years with a male-to-female ratio of 5.2:1 (P = 0.007). The most frequent types of injury were work-related injuries (1,656, 46.5%) and home-related injuries (715, 20.1%). The majority of injuries in males (56.2%) and females (36.0%) occurred in the 15-44 age group and 0-14 age group, respectively. The final visual acuity correlated with the initial visual acuity (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.659; P<0.001). The Ocular Trauma Score also correlated with the final visual acuity (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.655; P<0.001). Conclusions: This analysis provides an epidemiological study of patients who were hospitalized for ocular trauma. Preventive efforts are important for both work-related and home-related eye injuries. © 2012 Cao et al.


Cao H.,Shantou University | Li L.,Shantou University | Zhang M.,Joint Shantou International Eye Center | Li H.,Shantou University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Ocular trauma is the leading cause of monocular visual disability and noncongenital unilateral blindness in children. This study describes the epidemiology and medical care associated with nonfatal pediatric (≤17 years of age) eye injury-related hospitalization in the largest industrial base for plastic toy production in China. Methods: A population-based retrospective study of patients hospitalized for ocular and orbital trauma in the ophthalmology departments of 3 major tertiary hospitals from 1st January 2001 to 31st December 2010 was performed. Results: The study included 1035 injured eyes from 1018 patients over a 10-year period: 560 (54.1%) eyes exhibited open globe injuries, 402 (38.8%) eyes suffered closed globe injuries, 10 (1.0%) eyes suffered chemical injuries and 8 (0.8%) eyes exhibited thermal injuries, representing an average annual hospitalization rate of 0.37 per 10,000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-0.38) due to pediatric eye injury in the Chaoshan region. The mean patient age was 9.2±4.4 years with a male-to-female ratio of 3.3:1 (P = 0.007). Children aged 6 to 11 years accounted for the highest percentage (40.8%, 416/1018) of hospitalization, 56.7% (236/416) of whom were hospitalized for open globe wounds. Injury occurred most frequently at home (73.1%). Open globe wounds cost the single most expensive financial burden (60.8%) of total charges with $998±702 mean charges per hospitalization. Conclusions: Open globe wounds occurred at home are earmarked for the priorities to prevention strategies. Higher public awareness of protecting primary schoolchildren from home-related eye injuries should be strengthened urgently by legislation or regulation since the traditional industrial mode seems to remain the pattern for the foreseeable future. Further research that provide detailed information on the specific inciting agents of pediatric eye injuries are recommended for facilitating the development and targeting of appropriate injury prevention initiatives. © 2013 Cao et al.


Gao Y.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Li L.P.,Shantou University | Kim J.H.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Congdon N.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | And 3 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2010

Background. One out of ten of China's population are migrants, moving from rural to urban areas. Many leave their families behind resulting in millions of school children living in their rural home towns without one or both their parents. Little is known about the health status of these left behind children (LBC). This study compares the health status and health-related behaviours of left behind adolescent school children and their counterparts in a rural area in Southern China. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among middle school students in Fuyang Township, Guangdong, China (2007-2008). Information about health behaviours, parental migration and demographic characteristics was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Overweight/obesity and stunting were defined based on measurements of height and weight. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to estimate the differences in health outcomes between LBC and non-LBC. Results. 18.1% of the schoolchildren had one or both parents working away from home. Multivariate analysis showed that male LBC were at higher risk of skipping breakfast, higher levels of physical inactivity, internet addiction, having ever smoked tobacco, suicide ideation, and being overweight. LBC girls were more likely to drink excessive amounts of sweetened beverage, to watch more TV, to have ever smoked or currently smoke tobacco, to have ever drunk alcohol and to binge drinking. They were also more likely to be unhappy, to think of planning suicide and consider leaving home. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that parental migration is a risk factor for unhealthy behaviours amongst adolescent school children in rural China. Further research is required in addition to the consideration of the implications for policies and programmes to protect LBC. © 2010 Gao et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Zhang M.,Joint Shantou International Eye Center | Gazzard G.,Kings College | Fu Z.,Mingren Eye Hospital | Li L.,Shantou University | And 5 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2011

Purpose. To assess the sensitivity and specificity of models predicting myopia onset among ethnically Chinese children. Methods. Visual acuity, height, weight, biometry (A-scan, keratometry), and refractive error were assessed at baseline and 3 years later using the same equipment and protocol in primary schools in Xiamen (China) and Singapore. A regression model predicting the onset of myopia < -0.75 diopters (D) after 3 years in either eye among Xiamen children was validated with Singapore data. Results. Baseline data were collected from 236 Xiamen children (mean age, 7.82 ± 0.63 years) and from 1979 predominantly Chinese children in Singapore (7.83 ± 0.84 years). Singapore children were significantly taller and heavier, and had more myopia (31.4% vs. 6.36% < -0.75 D in either eye, P < 0.001) and longer mean axial length. Three-year follow-up was available for 80.0% of Xiamen children and 83.1% in Singapore. For Xiamen, the area under the receiver-operator curve (AUC) in a model including ocular biometry, height, weight, and presenting visual acuity was 0.974 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.945-0.997). In Singapore, the same model achieved sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of 0.844, 0.650, and 0.669, with an AUC of 0.815 (95% CI, 0.791-0.839). Conclusions. Accuracy in predicting myopia onset based on simple measurements may be sufficient to make targeted early intervention practical in settings such as Singapore with high myopia prevalence. Models based on cohorts with a greater prevalence of high myopia than that in Xiamen could be used to assess accuracy of models predicting more severe forms of myopia. © 2011 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.


Congdon N.,Sun Yat Sen University | Congdon N.,Joint Shantou International Eye Center | Congdon N.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Li L.,Shantou University | And 7 more authors.
Ophthalmology | Year: 2011

Objective: To test an educational intervention promoting the purchase of spectacles among Chinese children. Design: Randomized, controlled trial. Participants: Children in years 1 and 2 of all 20 junior and senior high schools (ages 1217 years) in 3 rural townships in Guangdong, China. Methods: Children underwent visual acuity (VA) testing, and parents of participants with presenting VA worse than 6/12 in either eye improving by more than 2 lines with cycloplegic refraction were recommended to purchase glasses. Children at 10 randomly selected schools received a lecture, video, and classroom demonstration promoting spectacle purchase. Main Outcome Measures: Self-reported purchase of spectacles (primary outcome) and observed wear or possession of newly purchased glasses (secondary outcome) at follow-up examinations (mean, 219±87 days after the baseline visit). Results: Among 15 404 eligible children, examinations were completed for 6379 (74.6%) at intervention schools and 5044 (73.6%) at control schools. Spectacles were recommended for 2236 (35.1%) children at intervention schools and for 2212 (43.9%) at control schools. Of these, 417 (25.7%) intervention schools children and 537 (34.0%, P = 0.45) control schools children reported buying glasses. Predictors of purchase in regression models included female gender (P = 0.02), worse uncorrected VA (P<0.001), and higher absolute value of refractive error (P = 0.001). Neither the rate of self-reported purchase of glasses or observed wear or possession of newly purchased glasses differed between control schools and intervention schools in mixed-effect logistic regression models. Among children not purchasing glasses, 21.7% had better-eye VA of worse than 6/18. Conclusions: An intervention based on extensive pilot testing and focus groups in the area failed to promote spectacle purchase or wear. The high burden of remaining uncorrected poor vision underscores the need to develop better interventions. © 2011 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

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