Joint Pathology Center

Dunkirk Town Center, MD, United States

Joint Pathology Center

Dunkirk Town Center, MD, United States
Time filter
Source Type

Komlosh M.E.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Komlosh M.E.,Bethesda University | Ozarslan E.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Ozarslan E.,Bethesda University | And 6 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2013

Knowledge of microstructural features of nerve fascicles, such as their axon diameter, is crucial for understanding normal function in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as assessing changes due to pathologies. In this study double-pulsed field gradient (d-PFG) filtered MRI was used to map the average axon diameter (AAD) in porcine spinal cord, which was then compared to AADs measured with optical microscopy of the same specimen, as a way to further validate this new MRI method. A novel 3D d-PFG acquisition scheme was used to obtain AADs in each voxel of a coronal slice of rat brain corpus callosum. AAD measurements were also acquired using optical microscopy performed on histological sections and validated using a glass capillary array phantom. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Adesina A.,Baylor College of Medicine | Chumba D.,Moi University | Nelson A.M.,Joint Pathology Center | Orem J.,Uganda Cancer Institute | And 6 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2013

In the coming decades, cancer will be a major clinical and public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa. However, clinical and public health infrastructure and services in many countries are not positioned to deal with the growing cancer burden. Pathology is a core service required to serve many needs related to cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. Cancer diagnosis, treatment, and research all depend on adequate pathology. Pathology is also necessary for cancer registration, which is needed to accurately estimate cancer incidence and mortality. Cancer registry data directly guide policy-makers' decisions for cancer control and the allocation of clinical and public health services. Despite the centrality of pathology in many components of cancer care and control, countries in sub-Saharan Africa have at best a tenth of the pathology coverage of that in high-income countries. Equipment, processes, and services are lacking, and there is a need for quality assurance for the definition and implementation of high-quality, accurate diagnosis. Training and advocacy for pathology are also needed. We propose approaches to improve the status of pathology in sub-Saharan Africa to address the needs of patients with cancer and other diseases. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Guinee Jr. D.G.,Virginia Mason Medical Center | Franks T.J.,Joint Pathology Center | Gerbino A.J.,Virginia Mason Medical Center | Murakami S.S.,Huntington Hospital | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2013

On the basis of an initial case, we hypothesized that IgG4-positive plasma cells may be increased in pulmonary nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (PNLH) compared with other lymphoid proliferations of the lung. Six cases of PNLH, 9 cases of low-grade B-cell lymphoma of the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), 8 cases of intraparenchymal lymph nodes, 8 cases of either primary or secondary follicular bronchiolitis, and 4 cases of lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis were stained by immunohistochemical analysis for IgG4 and IgG. The mean number of IgG4-positive and IgG-positive plasma cells and the IgG4/IgG ratio were determined from a manual count of images from 3 separate high-power fields (hpf) of areas showing the highest numbers of stained cells, respectively. The mean number of IgG4-positive plasma cells and the IgG4/IgG ratio were significantly increased in PNLH (IgG4=78/hpf, IgG4/IgG=0.35) compared to low-grade lymphoma of BALT (IgG4=4/hpf, P=0.02; IgG4/IgG=0.03, P=0.005), intraparenchymal lymph nodes (IgG4=7/hpf, P=0.03; IgG4/IgG=0.06, P=0.007), follicular bronchiolitis (IgG4=0/hpf, P=0.02; IgG4/IgG=0, P=0.004), and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis (IgG4=2/hpf, P=0.02; IgG4/IgG=0.06, P=0.007). These findings support our current understanding of PNLH as a distinct form of reactive lymphoid proliferation, potentially aid in its distinction from low-grade B-cell lymphoma of BALT, and raise the possibility that PNLH may belong within the family of IgG4-related sclerosing diseases. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.

Miettinen M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Miettinen M.,Joint Pathology Center | Wang Z.-F.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Sarlomo-Rikala M.,University of Helsinki | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2011

Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are driven by KIT or PDGFRA-activating mutations, but a small subset is associated with loss of function of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex of mitochondrial inner membrane proteins. This occurs by germline mutations of the SDH subunit genes and hitherto unknown mechanisms. SDH-deficient GISTs especially include pediatric GISTs and those associated with Carney triad (CT) or Carney-Stratakis syndromes (CSSs); the latter 2 also include paraganglioma as a component. SDH-deficient GISTs were identified in this study on the basis of immunohistochemical loss of succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB), which signals functional loss of the SDH complex. We found 66 SDH-deficient GISTs among 756 gastric GISTs, with an estimated frequency of 7.5% of unselected cases. Nearly, all gastric GISTs in patients <20 years, and a substantial percentage of those in patients <40 years, but only rare GISTs in older adults were SDH deficient. There was a female predominance of over 2:1. Two patients each had either pulmonary chondroma or paraganglioma (CT), but none of the examined cases had SDH germline mutations (CSS) or somatic KIT/PDGFRA or BRAF mutations. SDH-deficient GISTs were often multiple and typically showed plexiform muscularis propria involvement and epithelioid hypercellular morphology. They were consistently KIT-positive and DOG1/Ano 1-positive and almost always smooth muscle actin negative. Tumor size and mitotic activity varied, and the tumors were somewhat unpredictable with low mitotic rates developing metastases. Gastric recurrences occurred in 11 patients, and peritoneal and liver metastases occurred in 8 and 10 patients, respectively. Lymph node metastases were detected in 5 patients, but lymphovascular invasion was present in >50% of cases studied; these 2 were not related to adverse outcome. Seven patients died of disease, but many had long survivals, even with peritoneal or liver metastases. All 378 nongastric GISTs and 34 gastric non-GIST mesenchymal tumors were SDHB positive. SDH-deficient GISTs constitute a small subgroup of gastric GISTs; they usually occur in children and young adults, often have a chronic course similar to that of pediatric and CT GISTs, and have potential association with paraganglioma, necessitating long-term follow-up. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Miettinen M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Miettinen M.,Joint Pathology Center | Sarlomo-Rikala M.,University of Helsinki | Wang Z.-F.,U.S. National Cancer Institute
American Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2011

Claudin-5 is a tight junction protein expressed in endothelial cells and in some epithelial cells. It has been shown as a marker in canine angiosarcoma; however, data on human mesenchymal tumors are limited. In this study, we examined claudin-5 in selected normal tissues, in 280 benign and malignant vascular tumors, and in 448 other epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuroectodermal tumors. Early human embryos showed limited claudin-5 expression in endothelia of large truncal vessels, in liver sinusoids, and in the epidermis. In adult human tissues, claudin-5 was widely present in the endothelia of vessels of different calibers. However, neovascular capillaries in carcinomas and other tumors were often negative. Claudin-5 was also present in many glandular and ductal epithelia, hair shafts, and glomerular podocytes. Capillary and cavernous hemangiomas and lymphangiomas generally showed endothelial positivity; however, many vessels, especially those with poorly formed lumina, were negative in juvenile capillary hemangiomas, and fewer vessels were highlighted in lobular capillary hemangiomas. Hemangioendotheliomas of retiform, kaposiform, epithelioid, and epithelioid sarcoma-like types showed positivity, the latter in a diffuse cytoplasmic manner. Most angiosarcomas (115 of 119) and Kaposi sarcomas (28 of 29) showed strong labeling, but rare cases only contained positive cytoplasmic dots. Claudin-5 was commonly present in carcinomas (except in sarcomatoid ones), but most tumors showed heterogenous labeling weaker than that in angiosarcomas. Seminomas and renal cell, hepatocellular, and signet ring cell carcinomas were negative. Among non-vascular mesenchymal tumors, biphasic synovial sarcoma was the only tumor to contain claudin-5-positive nonvascular elements. In hemangiopericytomas, glomus tumor, and melanomas, claudin-5 was expressed in endothelial cells only. Claudin-5 is a promising new marker for angiosarcomas and hemangioendotheliomas, but widespread expression in carcinomas and biphasic synovial sarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis and addressed with the use of an antibody panel including keratins, especially the more epithelial-specific AE1/AE3 and epithelial membrane antigen. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

O'Malley D.P.,Clarient | Auerbach A.,Joint Pathology Center | Weiss L.M.,Clarient
Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2015

Context. - Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most commonly diagnosed subtype of lymphoma worldwide. The current World Health Organization (WHO) classification includes several subtypes, based on a combination of clinical, immunohistochemical, and genetic differences. Immunohistochemical staining is essential in evaluating diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and many related large Bcell lymphomas and aggressive B-cell lymphomas. Objective. - To address different immunohistochemical features used for identification, subclassification, prognosis and in some cases, therapy, of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and related lymphomas. Data Sources. - The information outlined in this review article is based on our experiences with routine cases, on the current WHO classification of hematopoietic and lymphoid tumors, and on a review of English-language articles published throughout 2014. Conclusions. - Features and diagnostic criteria of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, aggressive variants of B-cell lymphomas, including Burkitt lymphoma and "doublehit" lymphomas, are discussed. Identification of cell of origin (germinal center type versus activated B-cell type) is discussed at length. Finally, practical approaches for diagnosis are discussed.

Smith A.B.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Smith A.B.,American Institute for Radiologic Pathology | Smirniotopoulos J.G.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Horkanyne-Szakaly I.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Horkanyne-Szakaly I.,Joint Pathology Center
Radiographics | Year: 2013

A variety of neoplasms may arise in the ventricular system. Intraventricu-lar neoplasms may be discovered as an incidental finding at cross-sectional imaging or may manifest with varied symptoms depending on their location, including symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. These lesions may arise from various ventricular structures, including the ependymal lining (eg, ependymoma), subependymal layer (eg, subependymoma), or choroid plexus (eg, choroid plexus neoplasms), or they may have a cell of origin that has yet to be determined (eg, chordoid glioma). Other neoplasms involving the ventricular system include central neurocytoma, subependymal giant cell tumor, meningioma, rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor, and metastases. The differential diagnosis for intraventricular neoplasms can be broad, and many of them have similar patterns of signal intensity and contrast enhancement at imaging. However, the location of the lesion in the ventricular system-along with knowledge of the patient's age, gender, and underlying conditions-will help narrow the differential diagnosis. RSNA, 2013.

Lucas S.,St Thomas Hospital | Nelson A.M.,Joint Pathology Center
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2015

Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes systemic T cell destruction and reduced cell-mediated immunity that leads to a wide range of opportunistic infections and cancers. Second, it directly damages many tissues - gut, brain, lung - through mononuclear cell infection and activation. Third, through immune activation and effects on endothelia, it can cause more subtle systemic organ damage, such as chronic cardiovascular, hepatic, pulmonary and central nervous system disease. Antiretroviral treatment has enabled HIV-infected persons to live with chronic infection, although with some side-effects and mortality, including reactions due to the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). As cohorts of infected people get older, age-related diseases will combine with chronic HIV infection to produce disabilities whose scale is not yet understood. HIV is detectable in tissues by immunohistochemistry when infection loads are high, such as at first presentation. Pathologists should proactively consider HIV disease in routine diagnostic work, so as to identify more HIV-infected patients and enable their optimal management. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Smith A.B.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Horkanyne-Szakaly I.,Joint Pathology Center | Schroeder J.W.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Rushing E.J.,University of Zürich
Radiographics | Year: 2014

Meningioma is the most common mass involving the dura, making it number one in the differential diagnosis for any dural-based mass; however, a variety of other neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions also involve the dura. Knowledge of the dural anatomy can provide clues to the various processes that may involve this location. The neoplastic processes include both benign and malignant lesions such as hemangiopericytoma, lymphoma, solitary fibrous tumor, melanocytic lesions, Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumors, Rosai-Dorfman disease, and metastatic lesions. The non-neoplastic processes include infectious and inflammatory entities such as tuberculosis and sarcoid, which may mimic mass lesions. In some cases, neoplasms such as gliosarcoma may arise peripherally from the brain parenchyma, appearing dural-based and even inciting a dural tail. Many of these share similar computed tomographic, magnetic resonance imaging, and angiographic characteristics with meningiomas, such as a dural tail, increased vascularity, avid enhancement, and similar signal characteristics; however, knowledge of the patient's age, gender, and underlying conditions and certain imaging characteristics may provide valuable clues to recognizing these lesions. For example, in the population with human immunodeficiency virus infection, Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis for dural-based lesions. The surgical course and prognosis for these lesions vary, and knowledge of the variety of lesions that involve the dura, their imaging appearances, and their clinical features assists in narrowing the radiologic differential diagnosis and optimizing patient treatment. © RSNA, 2014.

Laskin W.B.,Northwestern University | Fetsch J.F.,Joint Pathology Center | Miettinen M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
American Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2014

In this study, we examine the clinicopathologic features of 104 cases of myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS), a low-grade, inflammatory fibromyxoid tumor with a predilection to distal extremity soft tissue, and attempt to identify factors predictive of aggressive behavior. The study cohort consisted of 49 male and 55 female patients ranging in age from 17 to 83 (mean, 42; median, 39) years. The tumor arose primarily on the dorsal aspect of the distal extremities as a solitary and usually painless mass. Tumors ranged in size from 0.5 to 15 (mean, 3.2; median; 2.4) cm. Microscopically, tumors consisted of variably cellular and inflamed fibromyxoid tissue growing as a lobulated mass or as multiple nodules within subcutaneous tissue or along tendinofascial planes. Tumor cells ranged from plump spindled to more epithelioid cells with enlarged, vesicular nuclei. Characteristic of the process was a strikingly bizarre cell with an inclusion body-like nucleolus (85% of cases) and/or a smudgy hyperchromatic nucleus (51%) present in all but 7 cases. The mitotic rate per 50 high-power field ranged from 0 to 13 (mean, 2,9; median, 2) mitoses. Twenty-two tumors demonstrated 1 or more of the following atypical features: (1) foci with complex sarcoma-like vasculature; (2) hypercellular areas; and (3) increased mitotic activity or atypical mitotic figures. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells demonstrated immunoreactivity for vimentin (100%), D2-40 (86%), CD34 (50%), keratin(s) (33%), CD68 (27%), actin(s) (26%), desmin (9%), S-100 protein (7%), and epithelial membrane antigen (6%). Thirty of 59 patients (51%) with follow-up data suffered (at least) 1 local recurrence, and 1 patient developed metastatic disease after multiple local recurrences. Completeness of initial surgical excision was the only clinicopathologic parameter that statistically correlated with a lower incidence of recurrence (P=0.004). Histologically atypical MIFS recurred more often than conventional tumors (67% vs. 47%), but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.35). Our study shows that histologic features often associated with more aggressive sarcomas do not substantially impact the morbidity of MIFS, and complete surgical excision provides the best chance for disease-free survival. © 2013 by Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Loading Joint Pathology Center collaborators
Loading Joint Pathology Center collaborators