Joint Malaria Programme

Moshi, Tanzania

Joint Malaria Programme

Moshi, Tanzania
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Horowitz A.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Horowitz A.,Stanford University | Hafalla J.C.R.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | King E.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Immunology | Year: 2012

RTS,S/AS01, a vaccine targeting pre-erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum, is undergoing clinical trials. We report an analysis of cellular immune response to component Ags of RTS,S - hepatitis B surface Ag (HBs) and P. falciparum circumsporozoite (CS) protein - among Tanzanian children in a phase IIb RTS,S/AS01 E trial. RTS,S/AS01 E vaccinees make stronger T cell IFN-γ, CD69, and CD25 responses to HBs peptides than do controls, indicating that RTS,S boosts pre-existing HBs responses. T cell CD69 and CD25 responses to CS and CS-specific secreted IL-2 were augmented by RTS,S vaccination. Importantly, more than 50% of peptide-induced IFN- γ + lymphocytes were NK cells, and the magnitude of the NK cell CD69 response to HBs peptides correlated with secreted IL-2 concentration. CD69 and CD25 expression and IL-2 secretion may represent sensitive markers of RTS,S-induced, CS-specific T cells. The potential for T cell-derived IL-2 to augment NK cell activation in RTS,S-vaccinated individuals, and the relevance of this for protection, needs to be explored further. Copyright © 2012 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

Hendriksen I.C.E.,Mahidol University | Hendriksen I.C.E.,University of Oxford | Mtove G.,National Institute for Medical Research | Kent A.,Joint Malaria Programme | And 13 more authors.
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Parenteral artesunate (ARS) is the drug of choice for the treatment of severe malaria. Pharmacokinetics data on intramuscular ARS are limited with respect to the main treatment group that carries the highest mortality, namely, critically ill children with severe malaria. A population pharmacokinetic study of ARS and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) was conducted from sparse sampling in 70 Tanzanian children of ages 6 months to 11 years. All the children had been admitted with severe falciparum malaria and were treated with intramuscular ARS (2.4 mg/kg at 0, 12, and 24 h). Venous plasma concentration-time profiles were characterized using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM). A one-compartment disposition model accurately described first-dose population pharmacokinetics of ARS and DHA. Body weight significantly affected clearance and apparent volume of distribution (P < 0.001), resulting in lower ARS and DHA exposure levels in smaller children. An adapted dosing regimen including a practical dosing table per weight band is proposed for young children based on the pharmacokinetic model. © 2013 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

Mtove G.,National Institute for Medical Research Amani Center | Amos B.,Joint Malaria Programme | Amos B.,Teule Hospital | Von Seidlein L.,Joint Malaria Programme | And 15 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: The importance of invasive salmonellosis in African children is well recognized but there is inadequate information on these infections. We conducted a fever surveillance study in a Tanzanian rural hospital to estimate the case fraction of invasive salmonellosis among pediatric admissions, examine associations with common co-morbidities and describe its clinical features. We compared our main findings with those from previous studies among children in sub-Saharan Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings: From 1 March 2008 to 28 Feb 2009, 1,502 children were enrolled into the study. We collected clinical information and blood for point of care tests, culture, and diagnosis of malaria and HIV. We analyzed the clinical features on admission and outcome by laboratory-confirmed diagnosis. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from the blood of 156 (10%) children, of which 14 (9%) were S. typhi, 45 (29%) were NTS and 97 (62%) were other pathogenic bacteria. Invasive salmonellosis accounted for 59/156 (38%) bacteremic children. Children with typhoid fever were significantly older and presented with a longer duration of fever. NTS infections were significantly associated with prior antimalarial treatment, malarial complications and with a high risk for death. Conclusions/Significance: Invasive salmonellosis, particularly NTS infection, is an important cause of febrile disease among hospitalized children in our rural Tanzanian setting. Previous studies showed considerable variation in the case fraction of S. typhi and NTS infections. Certain suggestive clinical features (such as older age and long duration of fever for typhoid whereas concomitant malaria, anemia, jaundice and hypoglycemia for NTS infection) may be used to distinguish invasive salmonellosis from other severe febrile illness. © 2010 Mtove et al.

Nadjm B.,Vietnam National University, Hanoi | Mtove G.,National Institute for Medical Research | Amos B.,Teule Hospital | Hildenwall H.,Karolinska Institutet | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2013

Data from a prospective study of 3,319 children ages 2 months to 5 years admitted with febrile illness to a Tanzanian district hospital were analyzed to determine the relationship of blood glucose and mortality. Hypoglycemia (blood sugar < 2.5 mmol/L and < 45 mg/dL) was found in 105 of 3,319 (3.2%) children at admission, and low-normal blood glucose (2.5-5 mmol/L and 45-90 mg/dL) was found in 773 of 3,319 (23.3%) children. Mortality was inversely related to admission blood sugar; compared with children with an admission blood glucose of > 5 mmol/L, the adjusted odds of dying were 3.3 (95% confidence interval = 2.1-5.2) and 9.8 (95% confidence interval = 5.1-19.0) among children with admission blood glucose 2.5-5 and < 2.5 mmol/L, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis suggested an optimal cutoff for admission blood sugar of < 5 mmol/L in predicting mortality (sensitivity = 57.7%, specificity = 75.2%). A cutoff for admission blood glucose of < 5 mmol/L represents a simple and clinically useful predictor of mortality in children admitted with severe febrile illness to hospital in resource-poor settings. Copyright © 2013 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Mtove G.,National Institute for Medical Research | Amos B.,Joint Malaria Programme | Amos B.,Teule Hospital | Nadjm B.,Joint Malaria Programme | And 13 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2011

Background: The annual incidence and temporal trend of severe malaria and community-acquired bacteraemia during a four-year period in Muheza, Tanzania was assessed. Methods. Data on severely ill febrile children aged 2 months to 14 years from three prospective studies conducted at Muheza District Hospital from 2006 to 2010 was pooled and analysed. On admission, each enrolled child had a thin and thick blood film and at least one rapid diagnostic test for falciparum malaria, as well as a blood culture. The annual incidence of bacteraemia and severe malaria among children coming from Muheza was calculated and their temporal trend was assessed. Results: Overall, 1, 898 severe falciparum malaria and 684 bacteraemia cases were included. Of these, 1, 356 (71%) and 482 (71%), respectively, were from the referral population of Muheza. The incidence of falciparum malaria and all-cause bacteraemia in Muheza decreased five-fold and three-fold, respectively, from the first to the fourth year of surveillance (p < 0.0001). During this period, the median ages of children from Muheza admitted with severe malaria increased from 1.7 to 2.5 years (p < 0.0001). The reduction in all-cause bacteraemia was mainly driven by the 11-fold decline in the incidence of non-typhoidal salmonellosis. The annual incidences of Haemophilus influenzae and pneumococcal invasive bacterial infections decreased as well but were much fewer in number. Conclusions: These results add to the growing evidence of the decline in malaria associated with a decrease in non-typhoidal salmonellosis and possibly other bacteraemias. Malarial prevention and control strategies may provide a greater benefit than the mere reduction of malaria alone. © 2011Mtove et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Hendriksen I.C.E.,Mahidol University | Hendriksen I.C.E.,University of Oxford | Mtove G.,National Institute for Medical Research | Pedro A.J.,Hospital Central da Beira | And 13 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Background. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) now play an important role in the diagnosis of falciparum malaria in many countries where the disease is endemic. Although these tests have been extensively evaluated in uncomplicated falciparum malaria, reliable data on their performance for diagnosing potentially lethal severe malaria is lacking. Methods. We compared a Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich-protein2 (PfHRP2)-based RDT and a Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH)-based RDT with routine microscopy of a peripheral blood slide and expert microscopy as a reference standard for the diagnosis of severe malaria in 1898 children who presented with severe febrile illness at 2 centers in Mozambique and Tanzania. Results. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values of the PfHRP2-based test were 94.0%, 70.9%, 85.4%, and 86.8%, respectively, and for the pLDH-based test, the values were 88.0%, 88.3%, 93.2%, and 80.3%, respectively. At parasite counts <1000 parasites/μL (n = 173), sensitivity of the pLDH-based test was low (45.7%), compared with that of the PfHRP2-based test (69.9%). Both RDTs performed better than did the routine slide reading in a clinical laboratory as assessed in 1 of the centers. Conclusion. The evaluated PfHRP2-based RDT is an acceptable alternative to routine microscopy for diagnosing severe malaria in African children and performed better than did the evaluated pLDH-based RDT. © 2011 The Author.

Reynolds J.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | DiLiberto D.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Mangham-Jefferies L.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Ansah E.K.,Dangme West District Health Directorate | And 16 more authors.
Implementation Science | Year: 2014

Background: There is increasing recognition among trialists of the challenges in understanding how particular 'real-life' contexts influence the delivery and receipt of complex health interventions. Evaluations of interventions to change health worker and/or patient behaviours in health service settings exemplify these challenges. When interpreting evaluation data, deviation from intended intervention implementation is accounted for through process evaluations of fidelity, reach, and intensity. However, no such systematic approach has been proposed to account for the way evaluation activities may deviate in practice from assumptions made when data are interpreted.Methods: A collective case study was conducted to explore experiences of undertaking evaluation activities in the real-life contexts of nine complex intervention trials seeking to improve appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria in varied health service settings. Multiple sources of data were used, including in-depth interviews with investigators, participant-observation of studies, and rounds of discussion and reflection.Results and discussion: From our experiences of the realities of conducting these evaluations, we identified six key 'lessons learned' about ways to become aware of and manage aspects of the fabric of trials involving the interface of researchers, fieldworkers, participants and data collection tools that may affect the intended production of data and interpretation of findings. These lessons included: foster a shared understanding across the study team of how individual practices contribute to the study goals; promote and facilitate within-team communications for ongoing reflection on the progress of the evaluation; establish processes for ongoing collaboration and dialogue between sub-study teams; the importance of a field research coordinator bridging everyday project management with scientific oversight; collect and review reflective field notes on the progress of the evaluation to aid interpretation of outcomes; and these approaches should help the identification of and reflection on possible overlaps between the evaluation and intervention.Conclusion: The lessons we have drawn point to the principle of reflexivity that, we argue, needs to become part of standard practice in the conduct of evaluations of complex interventions to promote more meaningful interpretations of the effects of an intervention and to better inform future implementation and decision-making. © 2014 Reynolds et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Lusingu J.,National Institute for Medical Research | Olotu A.,Center for Geographic Medicine Research Coast | Leach A.,Glaxosmithkline | Lievens M.,Glaxosmithkline | And 28 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

The malaria vaccine candidate, RTS,S/AS01E, showed promising protective efficacy in a trial of Kenyan and Tanzanian children aged 5 to 17 months. Here we report on the vaccine's safety and tolerability. The experimental design was a Phase 2b, two-centre, double-blind (observer- and participant-blind), randomised (1:1 ratio) controlled trial. Three doses of study or control (rabies) vaccines were administered intramuscularly at 1 month intervals. Solicited adverse events (AEs) were collected for 7 days after each vaccination. There was surveillance and reporting for unsolicited adverse events for 30 days after each vaccination. Serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded throughout the study period which lasted for 14 months after dose 1 in Korogwe, Tanzania and an average of 18 months post-dose 1 in Kilifi, Kenya. Blood samples for safety monitoring of haematological, renal and hepatic functions were taken at baseline, 3, 10 and 14 months after dose 1. A total of 894 children received RTS,S/AS01E or rabies vaccine between March and August 2007. Overall, children vaccinated with RTS,S/AS01E had fewer SAEs (51/447) than children in the control group (88/447). One SAE episode in a RTS,S/AS01E recipient and nine episodes among eight rabies vaccine recipients met the criteria for severe malaria. Unsolicited AEs were reported in 78% of subjects in the RTS,S/AS01E group and 74% of subjects in the rabies vaccine group. In both vaccine groups, gastroenteritis and pneumonia were the most frequently reported unsolicited AE. Fever was the most frequently observed solicited AE and was recorded after 11% of RTS,S/AS01E doses compared to 31% of doses of rabies vaccine. The candidate vaccine RTS,S/AS01E showed an acceptable safety profile in children living in a malaria-endemic area in East Africa. More data on the safety of RTS,S/AS01E will become available from the Phase 3 programme. © 2010 Lusingu et al.

Gelin P.,University of Reunion Island | Magalon H.,University of Reunion Island | Drakeley C.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Maxwell C.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Tropical Insect Science | Year: 2016

Understanding the impact of altitude and ecological heterogeneity at a fine scale on the populations of malaria vectors is essential to better understand and anticipate eventual epidemiological changes. It could help to evaluate the spread of alleles conferring resistance to insecticides and also determine any increased entomological risk of transmission in highlands due to global warming. We used microsatellite markers to measure the effect of altitude and distance on the population genetic structure of Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae s.s. in the Muheza area in the north-eastern part of Tanzania (seven loci for each species). Our analysis reveals strong gene flow between the different populations of An. funestus from lowland and highland areas, as well as between populations of An. gambiae sampled in the lowland area. These results highlight for An. funestus the absence of a significant spatial subpopulation structuring at small-scale, despite a steep ecological and altitudinal cline. Our findings are important in the understanding of the possible spread of alleles conferring insecticide resistance through mosquito populations. Such information is essential for vector control programmes to avoid the rapid spread and fixation of resistance in mosquito populations. Copyright © icipe 2016

Bousema T.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Roeffen W.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Meijerink H.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Mwerinde H.,Tanzania Plantation Company | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Naturally acquired immune responses against sexual stages of P. falciparum can reduce the transmission of malaria from humans to mosquitoes. These antigens are candidate transmission-blocking vaccines but little is known about the acquisition of sexual stage immunity after exposure to gametocytes, or their longevity and functionality. We conducted a longitudinal study on functional sexual stage immune responses. Methodology/Principal Findings: Parasitaemic individuals (n = 116) were recruited at a health centre in Lower Moshi, Tanzania. Patients presented with gametocytes (n = 16), developed circulating gametocytes by day 7 (n = 69) or between day 7 and 14 (n = 10) after treatment or did not develop gametocytes (n = 21). Serum samples were collected on the first day of gametocytaemia and 28 and 84 days post-enrolment (or d7, 28, 84 after enrolment from gametocyte-negative individuals). Antibody responses to sexual stage antigens Pfs230 and Pfs48/45 were detected in 20.7% (72/348) and 15.2% (53/348) of the samples, respectively, and were less prevalent than antibodies against asexual stage antigens MSP-119 (48.1%; 137/285) and AMA-1 (52.4%; 129/246)(p<0.001). The prevalence of anti-Pfs230 (p = 0.026) and anti-Pfs48/45 antibodies (p = 0.017) increased with longer duration of gametocyte exposure and had an estimated half-life of approximately 3 months. Membrane feeding experiments demonstrated a strong association between the prevalence and concentration of Pfs230 and Pfs48/45 antibodies and transmission reducing activity (TRA, p<0.01). Conclusions/Significance: In a longitudinal study, anti-Pfs230 and Pf48/45 antibodies developed rapidly after exposure to gametocytes and were strongly associated with transmission-reducing activity. Our data indicate that the extent of antigen exposure is important in eliciting functional transmission-reducing immune responses. © 2010 Bousema et al.

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