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Wuthrich K.,Scripps Research Institute | Wuthrich K.,Joint Center for Structural Genomics
Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications | Year: 2010

An introduction is provided to three papers which compare corresponding protein crystal and NMR solution structures determined by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics (JCSG). Special mention is made of the JCSG strategy for combined use of the two techniques, and of potential applications of the concept of 'reference crystal structures', which is introduced in the following three papers. Source


Deller M.C.,Joint Center for Structural Genomics | Deller M.C.,Scripps Research Institute | Rupp B.,k. k. Hofkristallamt 991 Audrey Place | Rupp B.,Innsbruck Medical University
Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design | Year: 2015

X-ray crystallography provides the most accurate models of protein-ligand structures. These models serve as the foundation of many computational methods including structure prediction, molecular modelling, and structure-based drug design. The success of these computational methods ultimately depends on the quality of the underlying protein-ligand models. X-ray crystallography offers the unparalleled advantage of a clear mathematical formalism relating the experimental data to the protein-ligand model. In the case of X-ray crystallography, the primary experimental evidence is the electron density of the molecules forming the crystal. The first step in the generation of an accurate and precise crystallographic model is the interpretation of the electron density of the crystal, typically carried out by construction of an atomic model. The atomic model must then be validated for fit to the experimental electron density and also for agreement with prior expectations of stereochemistry. Stringent validation of protein-ligand models has become possible as a result of the mandatory deposition of primary diffraction data, and many computational tools are now available to aid in the validation process. Validation of protein-ligand complexes has revealed some instances of overenthusiastic interpretation of ligand density. Fundamental concepts and metrics of protein-ligand quality validation are discussed and we highlight software tools to assist in this process. It is essential that end users select high quality protein-ligand models for their computational and biological studies, and we provide an overview of how this can be achieved. © 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source


Van Den Bedem H.,Joint Center for Structural Genomics | Bhabha G.,University of California at San Francisco | Bhabha G.,Scripps Research Institute | Yang K.,Stanford University | And 2 more authors.
Nature Methods | Year: 2013

Protein function often depends on the exchange between conformational substates. Allosteric ligand binding or distal mutations can stabilize specific active-site conformations and consequently alter protein function. Observing alternative conformations at low levels of electron density, in addition to comparison of independently determined X-ray crystal structures, can provide mechanistic insights into conformational dynamics. Here we report a new algorithm, CONTACT, that identifies contact networks of conformationally heterogeneous residues directly from high-resolution X-ray crystallography data. Contact networks determined for Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (ecDHFR) predict the observed long-range pattern of NMR chemical shift perturbations of an allosteric mutation. A comparison of contact networks in wild-type and mutant ecDHFR suggests that mutations that alter optimized contact networks of coordinated motions can impair catalytic function. CONTACT-guided mutagenesis can exploit the structure-dynamics-function relationship in protein engineering and design. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Venable J.D.,Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation | Okach L.,Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation | Okach L.,Joint Center for Structural Genomics | Agarwalla S.,Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation | Brock A.,Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

Amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange is a commonly used technique for studying the dynamics of proteins and their interactions with other proteins or ligands. When coupled with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, hydrogen/deuterium exchange provides several unique advantages over other structural characterization techniques including very high sensitivity, the ability to analyze proteins in complex environments, and a large mass range. A fundamental limitation of the technique arises from the loss of the deuterium label (back-exchange) during the course of the analysis. A method to limit loss of the label during the separation stage of the analysis using subzero temperature reversed-phase chromatography is presented. The approach is facilitated by the use of buffer modifiers that prevent freezing. We evaluated ethylene glycol, dimethyl formamide, formamide, and methanol for their freezing point suppression capabilities, effects on peptide retention, and their compatibilities with electrospray ionization. Ethylene glycol was used extensively because of its good electrospray ionization compatibility; however, formamide has potential to be a superior modifier if detrimental effects on ionization can be overcome. It is demonstrated using suitable buffer modifiers that separations can be performed at temperatures as low as -30 °C with negligible loss of the deuterium label, even during long chromatographic separations. The reduction in back-exchange is shown to increase the dynamic range of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry in terms of mixture complexity and the magnitude with which changes in deuteration level can be quantified. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Keedy D.A.,University of California at San Francisco | Van Den Bedem H.,Joint Center for Structural Genomics | Sivak D.A.,University of California at San Francisco | Petsko G.A.,Brandeis University | And 4 more authors.
Structure | Year: 2014

Summary Most macromolecular X-ray structures are determined from cryocooled crystals, but it is unclear whether cryocooling distorts functionally relevant flexibility. Here we compare independently acquired pairs of high-resolution data sets of a model Michaelis complex of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), collected by separate groups at both room and cryogenic temperatures. These data sets allow us to isolate the differences between experimental procedures and between temperatures. Our analyses of multiconformer models and time-averaged ensembles suggest that cryocooling suppresses and otherwise modifies side-chain and main-chain conformational heterogeneity, quenching dynamic contact networks. Despite some idiosyncratic differences, most changes from room temperature to cryogenic temperature are conserved and likely reflect temperature-dependent solvent remodeling. Both cryogenic data sets point to additional conformations not evident in the corresponding room temperature data sets, suggesting that cryocooling does not merely trap preexisting conformational heterogeneity. Our results demonstrate that crystal cryocooling consistently distorts the energy landscape of DHFR, a paragon for understanding functional protein dynamics. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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