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Hilo, HI, United States

Varricatt W.P.,Joint Astronomy Center
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

The luminous young stellar object (YSO) IRAS 07422-2001 is studied in the infrared (IR). We discover star forming activity in embedded clusters located in a cloud detected at mid-IR wavelengths in emission. Multiple outflows are discovered from these clusters in the H 2 ro-vibrational line at 2.122 μm. We detect at least six outflows from the cluster associated with the IRAS source and another outflow from a source located in a cluster detected ∼2.7 arcmin NE of the IRAS source. Additional star formation is taking place in two other cluster candidates within the cloud. Three of the YSOs in the cluster associated with the IRAS source are detected at 11.2 μm at an angular resolution of ∼0.8′′. We have a tentative detection of a circumstellar disk in this cluster, seen as an extinction lane in the J and H-band images. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the dominant YSOs in the cluster associated with the IRAS source and in the NE cluster are studied using radiative transfer models and the properties of the YSOs are estimated. The YSO associated with the IRAS source is probably in a very early Class I stage of formation. The source identified as the dominant YSO in the NE cluster appears to be older than the dominant YSO in the cluster associated with the IRAS source, but its observed flux seems to be contaminated by extra emission, which suggests the presence of a young source contributing to the SED at far-IR wavelengths. The star formation observed in the field of IRAS 07422-2001 supports the idea of hierarchical formation of massive star clusters and the growth of massive young stellar objects near the centres of multiple sub-clusters in a star forming clump through competitive accretion. © 2012 ESO. Source

Varricatt W.P.,Joint Astronomy Center
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2011

Aims. We seek to understand the way massive stars form. The case of a luminous YSO IRAS 17527-2439 is studied in the infrared. Methods. Imaging observations of IRAS 17527-2439 are obtained in the near-IR JHK photometric bands and in a narrow-band filter centred at the wavelength of the H2 1-0S(1) line. The continuum-subtracted H2 image is used to identify outflows. The data obtained in this study are used in conjunction with Spitzer, AKARI, and IRAS data. The YSO driving the outflow is identified in the Spitzer images. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of the YSO is studied using available radiative transfer models. Results. A parsec-scale bipolar outflow is discovered in our H2 line image, which is supported by the detection in the archival Spitzer images. The H2 image exhibits signs of precession of the main jet and shows tentative evidence for a second outflow. These suggest the possibility of a companion to the outflow source. There is a strong component of continuum emission in the direction of the outflow, which supports the idea that the outflow cavity provides a path for radiation to escape, thereby reducing the radiation pressure on the accreted matter. The bulk of the emission observed close to the outflow in the WFCAM and Spitzer bands is rotated counter clockwise with respect to the outflow traced in H2, which may be due to precession. A model fit to the SED of the central source tells us that the YSO has a mass of 12.23 M⊙ and that it is in an early stage of evolution. © 2011 ESO. Source

Jenness T.,Joint Astronomy Center | Robson E.I.,Astronomy Technology Center | Stevens J.A.,University of Hertfordshire
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2010

Calibrated data for 143 flat-spectrum extragalactic radio sources are presented at a wavelength of 850 μm covering a 5-yr period from 2000 April. The data, obtained at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope using the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) camera in pointing mode, were analysed using an automated pipeline process based on the Observatory Reduction and Acquisition Control - Data Reduction (ORAC-DR) system. This paper describes the techniques used to analyse and calibrate the data, and presents the data base of results along with a representative sample of the better-sampled light curves. A re-analysis of previously published data from 1997 to 2000 is also presented. The combined catalogue, comprising 10 493 flux density measurements, provides a unique and valuable resource for studies of extragalactic radio sources. © 2009 RAS. Source

Leech J.,University of Oxford | Isaak K.G.,University of Cardiff | Papadopoulos P.P.,Argelander Institute For Astronomie | Gao Y.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Davis G.R.,Joint Astronomy Center
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2010

Luminous infrared galaxies (LIR > 1011 L⊙) are often associated with interacting galactic systems and are thought to be powered by merger-induced starbursts and/or dust-enshrouded active galactic nucleus. In such systems, the evolution of the dense, star-forming molecular gas as a function of merger separation is of particular interest. Here, we present observations of the CO(3-2) emission from a sample of luminous infrared galaxy mergers that span a range of galaxy-galaxy separations. The excitation of the molecular gas is studied by examining the CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) line ratio, r31, as a function of merger extent. We find these line ratios, r31, to be consistent with kinetic temperatures of Tk = (30-50) K and gas densities of We also find weak correlations between r31 and both merger progression and star formation efficiency [LFIR/LCO(1-0)]. These correlations show a tendency for gas excitation to increase as the merger progresses and the star formation efficiency rises. To conclude, we calculate the contributions of the CO(3-2) line to the 850-μm fluxes measured with SCUBA (Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array), which are seen to be significant (∼22 per cent). © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 RAS. Source

Long-slit spectroscopy observations of Uranus by the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope UIST instrument in 2006, 2007 and 2008 have been used to monitor the change in Uranus' vertical and latitudinal cloud structure through the planet's Northern Spring Equinox in December 2007.These spectra were analysed and presented by Irwin et al. (Irwin, P.G.J., Teanby, N.A., Davis, G.R. [2009]. Icarus 203, 287-302), but since publication, a new set of methane absorption data has become available (Karkoschka, E., Tomasko, M. [2010]. Methane absorption coefficients for the jovian planets from laboratory, Huygens, and HST data. Icarus 205, 674-694.), which appears to be more reliable at the cold temperatures and high pressures of Uranus' deep atmosphere. We have fitted k-coefficients to these new methane absorption data and we find that although the latitudinal variation and inter-annual changes reported by Irwin et al. (2009) stand, the new k-data place the main cloud deck at lower pressures (2-3. bars) than derived previously in the H-band of ∼3-4. bars and ∼3. bars compared with ∼6. bars in the J-band. Indeed, we find that using the new k-data it is possible to reproduce satisfactorily the entire observed centre-of-disc Uranus spectrum from 1 to 1.75μm with a single cloud at 2-3. bars provided that we make the particles more back-scattering at wavelengths less than 1.2μm by, for example, increasing the assumed single-scattering albedo from 0.75 (assumed in the J and H-bands) to near 1.0. In addition, we find that using a deep methane mole fraction of 4% in combination with the associated warm 'F' temperature profile of Lindal et al. (Lindal, G.F., Lyons, J.R., Sweetnam, D.N., Eshleman, V.R., Hinson, D.P. [1987]. J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14987-15001), the retrieved cloud deck using the new (Karkoschka and Tomasko, 2010) methane absorption data moves to between 1 and 2. bars. The same methane absorption data and retrieval algorithm were applied to observations of Neptune made during the same programme and we find that we can again fit the entire 1-1.75μm centre-of-disc spectrum with a single cloud model, providing that we make the stratospheric haze particles (of much greater opacity than for Uranus) conservatively scattering (i.e ω=1) and we also make the deeper cloud particles, again at around the 2. bar level more reflective for wavelengths less than 1.2μm. Hence, apart from the increased opacity of stratospheric hazes in Neptune's atmosphere, the deeper cloud structure and cloud composition of Uranus and Neptune would appear to be very similar. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

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