Johnson Matthey is a British multinational speciality chemicals and sustainable technologies company headquartered in the United Kingdom. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and has been a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index since 2002. Today, the company has market capitalisation of over £6 billion with 12,000 employees operating in more than 30 countries. Wikipedia.
Twigg M.V.,Johnson Matthey
Catalysis Today | Year: 2011
Air quality problems in America that were caused by pollutants from car exhaust and their photochemical reactions producing secondary pollutants in the urban environment had become of such a concern by the late 1960s that forcing environmental legislation was introduced in 1970, which became effective in 1975. Only catalysts containing platinum group metals were sufficiently effective, and their fitment in the exhaust line of gasoline cars coupled with other technical advances led to reduced pollutant emissions and significant improvements in air quality. Oxidation catalysts (typically Pt/Pd and Pt/Rh) were introduced first to control hydrocarbons (HCs) and CO emissions. Then these were combined with an upstream Pt/Rh catalyst to control NOx emissions as well. By the early 1980s Pt/Rh three-way catalysts (TWCs) were used in combination with electronic fuel injection, oxygen sensors and a microprocessor to provide closed loop control of the engine around the stoichiometric point. Since their introduction TWC performance has been hugely improved and adopted increasingly around the world. Legislation made catalyst fitment mandatory in Europe in 1993, and as a consequence many millions of tons of pollutants have not been released into the atmosphere with tremendous environmental benefits. More recently in Europe there has been a move towards diesel cars, and they presented technical challenges associated with low temperature exhaust and the presence of excess free oxygen that prevents fitment of TWCs. First Pt oxidation catalysts were used to control HC and CO emissions, and more recently catalysed (Pt/Pd) filters have very effectively controlled particulate matter emissions (soot) that are associated with direct health concerns. Now diesel NOx emissions are beginning to be controlled by Pt/Rh NOx-trapping catalysts that are regenerated by periodic enrichment of the exhaust, and by base metal selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts using ammonia derived from aqueous urea. In the future it may be expected that multi component diesel emissions control systems will be combined into sophisticated four-way single units under computer control in much the same way TWCs are used on gasoline cars. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source
Cookson J.,Johnson Matthey
Platinum Metals Review | Year: 2012
Palladium nanoparticles are of great importance as catalytic materials, as well as for a number of other applications such as hydrogen storage and sensing. Their synthesis has been wi dely studied and interest in their properties is growing. Here the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles by chemical and electrochemical methods using a variety of stabilisers including organic ligands, salts/surfactants, polymers and dendrimers is reviewed and their potential benefi ts in catalytic applications are introduced. © 2012 Johnson Matthey. Source
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2013.3.5 | Award Amount: 10.52M | Year: 2015
The project DEMCOPEM-2MW is to design, construct and demonstrate an economical combined heat and power PEM fuel cell power plant (2 MW electrical power and 1.5 MW heat) and integration into a chlor-alkali (CA) production plant. A chlor-alkali production plant produces chlorine and caustic soda (lye) and high purity hydrogen. The hydrogen contains almost 45% of the energy that is consumed in the plant. In many cases this hydrogen is vented. The project will demonstrate the PEM Power Plant technology for converting the hydrogen into electricity, heat and water for use in the chlor-alkali production process, lowering its electricity consumption by 20%. The partners have relevant experience in long life high efficient PEM power plant systems in hazardous environments like a chlor-alkali plant. The PEM power plant will be fully integrated into the chlorine production unit and will also be remotely controlled. The water produced by the oxidation of hydrogen is also used. To reduce the (maintenance) cost of the integrated plant special emphasis is put on the longevity of the fuel cells (especially membranes, electrodes and catalyst) and to lower the manufacturing costs. The design is optimized for minimal energy loss. Extensive diagnostics and data acquisition are incorporated to monitor the performance. The demonstration will take place in China as this is the ideal starting point for the market introduction. High electricity prices (up to 2 times higher than in Europe), 50% of the chlor-alkali world production and rationing of electricity all contribute to the business case. A successful demonstration will pave the way for the roll out of the technology, staged cost efficiencies and further self-sustained market and technology developments.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMP-23-2015 | Award Amount: 4.98M | Year: 2016
To date, three way catalytic converters (TWCs) have been established as the most effective engine exhaust after-treatment system. However, TWCs not only fail to address the issue of particulate matter (PM) emissions but are also the main industrial consumer of Critical Raw Materials (CRMs) mainly Platinum Group Metals (PGMs) and Rare Earth elements (REEs), with the automotive industry accounting for 65%-80% of total EU PGMs demand. The enforcement of new limits on PM emissions (EURO 6c/7) will require higher TWC performance, hence leading to further increase the CRMs content in autocatalysts. Addressing the necessity of CRMs reduction in catalysis, PARTIAL-PGMs proposes an integrated approach for the rational design of innovative nanostructured materials of low/zero PGMs/REEs content for a hybrid TWC/Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF) for automotive emissions after-treatment with continuous particulates combustion also focusing on identifying and fine-tuning the parameters involved in their preparation, characterization and performance evaluation under realistic conditions. PARTIAL-PGMs approach is broad, covering multiscale modeling, synthesis and nanomaterials characterization, performance evaluation under realistic conditions as well as recyclability, health impact analysis and Life Cycle Assessment. The rational synthesis of nanomaterials to be used in these hybrid systems will allow for a reduction of more than 35% in PGMs and 20% in REEs content, either by increasing performance or by their replacement with transition metals. The compact nature of the new hybrid system not only will allow its accommodation in smaller cars but will also reduce cold start emissions and light-off times with performance aiming to anticipate both future emission control regulations and new advances in engines technology. Such R&D progress in autocatalysts is expected to pave the way to the widespread use of such low CRMs content materials in other catalytic applications.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: GV-4-2014 | Award Amount: 28.42M | Year: 2015
The ECOCHAMPS project addresses topic GV-4-2014, Hybrid Light and Heavy Duty Vehicles. The work will, in a single coordinated project, address all aspects of this topic and will be conducted by 26 partners representing the European automotive industry (OEMs (EUCAR), suppliers (CLEPA), ESPs and universities (EARPA)) including members of ERTRAC and EGVIA. The objective is to achieve efficient, compact, low weight, robust and cost effective hybrid powertrains for both passenger cars and commercial vehicles (buses, medium and heavy duty trucks) with increased functionality, improved performance, comfort, safety and emissions below Euro 6 or VI, all proven under real driving conditions. The five demonstrator vehicles, for this purpose developed to TRL 7, that use the hybrid powertrains will among other give a direct cost versus performance comparison at two system voltage levels in the light duty vehicles, and include the modular and standardized framework components in the heavy duty vehicles. Achieving these innovations affordably will strengthen technical leadership in powertrains, enable a leading position in hybrid technology and increases the competitiveness of European OEMs. The vehicles will be ready for market introduction between 2020 and 2022 and (price) competitive to the best in-class (full hybrid) vehicles on the market in 2013. More importantly, the technology devised will impact on the reduction of CO2 emissions and the improvement of air quality. The project proposes to reach a 20% powertrain efficiency improvement and a 20% powertrain weight and volume reduction, with a 10% cost premium on the base model for the demonstrator. To meet air quality targets the project will prove, via independently supervised testing, real driving emissions at least below Euro 6 or VI limits and by simulation show the potential of the passenger car technologies to reach Super Low Emission Vehicle standards.