Hickson-Curran S.,Johnson and Johnson Vision Care Inc |
Hickson-Curran S.,Vistakon Johnson and Johnson Vision Care Inc |
Brennan N.A.,Johnson and Johnson Vision Care Inc |
Igarashi Y.,Johnson and Johnson Vision Care Inc |
Young G.,Visioncare Research Ltd
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2014
Purpose. To provide comparative ocular topography data from a substantial population of East Asian and white eyes. Methods. This study evaluated 675 subjects from three ethnic groups: white (n = 255), Chinese (n = 299), and Japanese (n = 121) at investigational sites in four locations: Wenzhou, China; Melbourne, Australia; Tokyo, Japan; and Jacksonville, USA. Subjects underwent the same measurements of ocular topography using identical equipment and protocols. A videokeratoscope (Medmont E300) was used to measure apical corneal radius, simulated K-reading (K), corneal shape factor (CSF), and corneal sagittal height at 10 mm in the two principal meridians. Digital photography was also used to measure ocular parameters including horizontal visible iris diameter (HVID), vertical palpebral aperture (PA), the intercanthal angle (ICA), and upper and lower lid angles. Results. Mean HVID measurements were significantly smaller for the Chinese and Japanese groups than whites: 11.26, 11.10, and 11.75 mm, respectively. Horizontal K was significantly steeper for the white than the Chinese and Japanese groups: 7.79, 7.86, and 7.92 mm, respectively. The Chinese eyes showed significantly higher mean vertical CSF (i.e., more prolate) than the other two groups. The Chinese group had significantly narrower PA and steeper ICA than the other two groups: the mean PA and ICA values were 9.71, 10.31, and 10.58 mm and 7.56, 6.32, and 6.27 degrees, for the Chinese, Japanese, and white groups, respectively. One-third of the Chinese (32%) and 31% of the Japanese subjects showed no apparent supratarsal fold ("single eyelid"). There were also significant differences between groups for corneal sagittal height at 10 mm and upper and lower lid angles, but no significant differences for vertical K and horizontal CSF. Conclusions. This study has highlighted some differences in ocular topography between Chinese, Japanese, and white ethnic groups that may be relevant to soft contact lens fit. Copyright © American Academy of Optometry.
Velarde G.P.,University of Florida |
Sherazi S.,University of Rochester |
Kraemer D.F.,University of Florida |
Kraemer D.F.,University of Rochester |
And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2015
The pathobiological impact of individual components of the metabolic syndrome (MS) on cardiac structural and functional parameters in women with isolated MS is not known. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare biochemical (prothrombotic, lipogenic, and inflammatory) and imaging (carotid intima-media thickening and basic cardiac structural measurements) markers in women with and without MS and (2) to examine if any of these markers associated or predicted cardiac structural differences between the 2 groups. This cross-sectional pilot study included 88 women with MS and 35 women without it. MS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Patients with diagnosis of diabetes were excluded. Compared with healthy subjects, women with MS had higher levels of intercellular adhesion molecule, myeloperoxidase, C-reactive protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin, apolipoprotein-B, and lower levels of apolipoprotein-A1 (p <0.001 for all). They also had higher mean ventricular septum, posterior wall thickness, left ventricular (LV) mass, carotid intima-media thickness (p <0.001 for all), and left atrial diameter (p = 0.015). In multivariable regression models, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure (BP) were significant predictors of: ventricular septum (p = 0.005 and p = 0.001, respectively), posterior wall thickness (p = 0.008 and p = 0.040, respectively), and LV mass (p <0.001 and p = 0.013, respectively). Significant predictors for carotid intima-media thickness were systolic BP, glucose, and leptin (p <0.0001, p = 0.034, and p = 0.002, respectively). In conclusion, there are significant clinical, biochemical, and cardiovascular structural differences in women with isolated MS compared with those without. Waist circumference and systolic BP had the strongest association with cardiac structural differences in this group of women. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.