Johnson and Johnson Sante Beaute France

Issy-les-Moulineaux, France

Johnson and Johnson Sante Beaute France

Issy-les-Moulineaux, France
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Boireau-Adamezyk E.,University Paris - Sud | Baillet-Guffroy A.,University Paris - Sud | Stamatas G.N.,Johnson and Johnson Sante Beaute France
Skin Research and Technology | Year: 2014

Background/purpose: The Stratum Corneum (SC) barrier function mainly depends on the SC structure at the tissue level, its composition, and the organization of intercellular lipidic cement at the molecular level. The goal of this study was to assess the age-dependent changes of the SC barrier function and the associated physiological parameters. Methods: This study was conducted on 40 French women divided into four groups of age. Measurements were done on three sites: cheek, protected, and exposed arm sites. SC composition (water, lipid/protein ratio, cholesterol, and ceramides) was measured using Raman confocal microspectroscopy, skin surface hydration using skin conductance, and barrier function through transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements. Results: Transepidermal water loss decreases slightly with age, which is partially explained by the age-dependent increase in SC thickness. This decrease is faster for the face compared to both arm sites. The lipid to protein ratio and lipid compactness decrease significantly with age only for the arm sites. Water concentration profiles only decrease very close to the skin surface. At all ages tested, the SC on the cheek showed significantly higher TEWL, water and lipid content and less thickness compared to the arm sites. Comparison of the exposed to unexposed arm site showed difference only for the lipid compactness at the older group studied. Conclusion: Skin aging, body site and environmental exposure can affect the SC barrier function, its structure, and its lipid content. The thickening of the SC with age compensates for the decrease of the quantity and ordering of the lipidic cement. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Stamatas G.N.,Johnson and Johnson Sante Beaute France | Tierney N.K.,Johnson and Johnson Consumer Companies Inc.
Pediatric Dermatology | Year: 2014

Pediatricians and parents report diaper dermatitis (DD) to be one of the most common skin diseases that affects almost every child at some point during the early months and years of life. Diapered skin is exposed to friction and excessive hydration, has a higher pH than nondiapered skin, and is repeatedly soiled with feces that contains enzymes with high irritation potential for the skin. The combination of these factors frequently results in skin damage, leading to visible erythematous lesions that can be irritating and painful to the child. Behavioral changes such as increased crying and agitation and changes in eating and sleeping patterns indicate emotional distress. Appropriate skin care can help to prevent the occurrence of DD and to speed up the healing of affected skin. This includes frequent diaper changes and aeration, gentle cleansing, and the use of a barrier cream. Mild to moderate cases usually resolve after a few days of following this routine, but the use of harsh cleaning products can exacerbate DD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Telofski L.S.,Johnson and Johnson Consumer Companies Inc. | Morello A.P.,Evidence Scientific Solutions | MacK Correa M.C.,Johnson and Johnson Consumer Companies Inc. | Stamatas G.N.,JOHNSON and JOHNSON Sante Beaute France
Dermatology Research and Practice | Year: 2012

Infant skin is different from adult in structure, function, and composition. Despite these differences, the skin barrier is competent at birth in healthy, full-term neonates. The primary focus of this paper is on the developing skin barrier in healthy, full-term neonates and infants. Additionally, a brief discussion of the properties of the skin barrier in premature neonates and infants with abnormal skin conditions (i.e., atopic dermatitis and eczema) is included. As infant skin continues to mature through the first years of life, it is important that skin care products (e.g., cleansers and emollients) are formulated appropriately. Ideally, products that are used on infants should not interfere with skin surface pH or perturb the skin barrier. For cleansers, this can be achieved by choosing the right type of surfactant, by blending surfactants, or by blending hydrophobically-modified polymers (HMPs) with surfactants to increase product mildness. Similarly, choosing the right type of oil for emollients is important. Unlike some vegetable oils, mineral oil is more stable and is not subject to oxidation and hydrolysis. Although emollients can improve the skin barrier, more studies are needed to determine the potential long-term benefits of using emollients on healthy, full-term neonates and infants. Copyright © 2012 Lorena S. Telofski et al.

Stamatas G.N.,Johnson and Johnson Sante Beaute France | Morello A.P.,Evidence Scientific Solutions | Mays D.A.,Johnson and Johnson Consumer Companies Inc.
Current Molecular Medicine | Year: 2013

Skin is considered as the border defining the limits of the body from the external world and functions as a barrier between the two. In this capacity, it has evolved to be an integral part of the innate and adaptive immune system. Although many reviews have described skin inflammation and processes that lead to its clinical manifestations, we are not aware of any reviews that have focused on immunologic activity occurring in the absence of any visual inflammatory cues. In this review, we discuss the importance of sub clinical inflammation in human skin and its relevance to innate immune surveillance under physiologic conditions. Reactive oxygen species generated by metabolic processes, ultraviolet radiation or oxidizers may damage cells, initiating pro inflammatory cascades. In addition to serving as structural skin components, keratinocytes have significant immunologic activity: they secrete pro inflammatory cytokines and mediators, including interleukin (IL)-1a, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Infant skin is particularly susceptible to irritation, inflammation and infection, since skin barrier function is not fully developed after birth and continues to mature throughout the first few years of life. Non-invasive methods such as fluorescence spectroscopy, spectral imaging and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, as well as minimally invasive tape stripping, can be used to assess sub clinical inflammatory markers in vivo, including erythema, epidermal cell proliferation rate and cytokine concentrations. Appropriately formulated skin care products may help maintain skin barrier integrity and enhance its capacity. In the future, assessment of sub clinical inflammation may help clinicians prevent acute or chronic inflammatory conditions of the skin. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

Capone K.A.,Johnson and Johnson Consumer Companies Inc. | Dowd S.E.,Research and Testing Laboratories LLC | Stamatas G.N.,Johnson and Johnson Sante Beaute France | Nikolovski J.,Johnson and Johnson Consumer Companies Inc.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology | Year: 2011

Within days after birth, rapid surface colonization of infant skin coincides with significant functional changes. Gradual maturation of skin function, structure, and composition continues throughout the first years of life. Recent reports have revealed topographical and temporal variations in the adult skin microbiome. Here we address the question of how the human skin microbiome develops early in life. We show that the composition of cutaneous microbial communities evolves over the first year of life, showing increasing diversity with age. Although early colonization is dominated by Staphylococci, their significant decline contributes to increased population evenness by the end of the first year. Similar to what has been shown in adults, the composition of infant skin microflora appears to be site specific. In contrast to adults, we find that Firmicutes predominate on infant skin. Timely and proper establishment of healthy skin microbiome during this early period might have a pivotal role in denying access to potentially infectious microbes and could affect microbiome composition and stability extending into adulthood. Bacterial communities contribute to the establishment of cutaneous homeostasis and modulate inflammatory responses. Early microbial colonization is therefore expected to critically affect the development of the skin immune function. © 2011 The Society for Investigative Dermatology.

Blume-Peytavi U.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Hauser M.,Johnson and Johnson GmbH | Stamatas G.N.,Johnson and Johnson Sante Beaute France | Pathirana D.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Bartels N.G.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin
Pediatric Dermatology | Year: 2012

In recent years, there have been continuing efforts to understand the effects of baby skin care routines and products on the healthy development of baby skin. Such efforts aim ultimately to determine the best infant skin care practices. The pediatric and dermatologic communities have not reached consensus on what constitutes an appropriate cleansing practice. In the United States, guidelines for neonatal skin care have been developed, propagated, and implemented. The accumulated knowledge has promoted evidence-based clinical practices and, therefore, may help to improve clinical outcomes, although these guidelines primarily cover the care of preterm newborns and the treatment of those with other health problems. High-level, long-term clinical evidence of the effective and safe cleansing of healthy, full-term newborns and infants is scarce. This review presents a comprehensive analysis of the scientific literature on baby skin development, cleansing practices, and related products (for healthy newborns and babies) since 1970. The evidence drawn from the reviewed literature can be summarized as follows: Bathing immersed in water seems generally superior to washing alone. Bathing or washing with synthetic detergents (syndets) or mild liquid baby cleansers seems comparable with or even superior to water alone. Nevertheless, larger randomized clinical trials with age-defined cohorts of babies as well as more-defined parameters are required to identify optimal practices and products for skin cleansing of healthy infants. These parameters may include standardized skin function parameters such as transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum hydration, skin surface pH, and sebum production. Clinical skin scores such as the Neonatal Skin Condition Score may be employed as outcome measures. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Blume-Peytavi U.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Hauser M.,Johnson and Johnson GmbH | Lunnemann L.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Stamatas G.N.,Johnson and Johnson Sante Beaute France | And 2 more authors.
Pediatric Dermatology | Year: 2014

Diaper dermatitis (DD) is one of the most common skin conditions in neonates and infants, with a peak between the ages of 9 and 12 months. Appropriate skin care practices that support skin barrier function and protect the buttocks skin from urine and feces are supposed to be effective in the prevention of DD. Despite many recommendations for parents and caregivers on proper diaper skin care, there is no up-to-date synthesis of the available evidence to develop recommendations for DD prevention practice. Therefore we performed a systematic literature review on the efficacy of nonmedical skin care practices on the diapered area of healthy, full-term infants ages 0 to 24 months. We identified 13 studies covering skin care practices such as cleansing, bathing, and application of topical products. DD prevalence and incidence and physiologic skin parameters were used as efficacy parameters. The results of this review indicate that cleansing of the diaper area using baby wipes or water and a washcloth have comparable effects on diapered skin. Bathing with a liquid baby cleanser twice weekly seems comparable with water alone. The application of ointments containing zinc oxide or petrolatum with or without vitamin A seems to have comparable effects on DD severity. There seems to be no information on whether single skin care practices such as cleansing, bathing, and application of topical preparations can prevent DD. High-quality randomized clinical trials are needed to show the effectiveness of skin care practices for controlling and preventing DD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Bigot N.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Beauchef G.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Hervieu M.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Oddos T.,Johnson and Johnson Sante Beaute France | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology | Year: 2012

The aging process, especially of the skin, is governed by changes in the epidermal, dermo-epidermal, and dermal compartments. Type I collagen, which is the major component of dermis extracellular matrix (ECM), constitutes a prime target for intrinsic and extrinsic aging-related alterations. In addition, under the aging process, pro-inflammatory signals are involved and collagens are fragmented owing to enhanced matrix metalloproteinase activities, and fibroblasts are no longer able to properly synthesize collagen fibrils. Here, we demonstrated that low levels of type I collagen detected in aged skin fibroblasts are attributable to an inhibition of COL1A1 transcription. Indeed, on one hand, we observed decreased binding activities of specific proteins 1 and 3, CCAAT-binding factor, and human collagen-Krüppel box, which are well-known COL1A1 transactivators acting through the 112/61-bp promoter sequence. On the other hand, the aging process was accompanied by elevated amounts and binding activities of NF-κB (p65 and p50 subunits), together with an increased number of senescent cells. The forced expression of NF-κB performed in young fibroblasts was able to establish an old-like phenotype by repressing COL1A1 expression through the short 112/61-bp COL1A1 promoter and by elevating the senescent cell distribution. The concomitant decrease of transactivator functions and increase of transinhibitor activity is responsible for ECM dysfunction, leading to aging/senescence in dermal fibroblasts. © 2012 The Society for Investigative Dermatology.

Rodriguez K.J.,Johnson and Johnson Skin Research Center | Wong H.-K.,Johnson and Johnson Sante Beaute France | Oddos T.,Johnson and Johnson Sante Beaute France | Southall M.,Johnson and Johnson Skin Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dermatological Science | Year: 2013

Background: Environmental factors such as solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and other external aggressors provide an oxidative challenge that is detrimental to skin health. The levels of endogenous antioxidants decrease with age, thus resulting in less protection and a greater potential for skin damage. The NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) - antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway is a primary defense mechanism against oxidative stress, and induces the expression of antioxidant, detoxification and repair genes. Activation of ARE-Nrf2 can help restore oxidative homeostasis of the skin and play a role in inflammatory response and DNA repair mechanisms. Objective: To evaluate the role of a purified parthenolide-depleted Feverfew (PD-Feverfew) extract on the ARE-Nrf2 pathway and DNA repair in skin cells. Methods: These studies were undertaken in primary human keratinocytes or KB cells using Luciferase Promoter assay, siRNA transfection studies, Western blot analyses, Immunofluorescence microscopy, comet assay and quantitative real-time PCR. Results: PD-Feverfew was found to induce Nrf2 nuclear translocation and to increase ARE activity in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, knockdown of Nrf2 resulted in suppression of PD-Feverfew-induced ARE activity. PD-Feverfew was also found to induce phosphorylation of Akt, a kinase downstream of PI3K. Inhibition of PI3K via pre-treatment with the selective pharmacological inhibitor, LY294002, abolished PD-Feverfew-induced Nrf2/ARE activation. PD-Feverfew also reduced UV-induced DNA damage in a PI3K and Nrf2-dependent manner. Conclusions: Therefore, by increasing endogenous defense mechanisms and aid in DNA repair of damaged skin cells via activation of a PI3K-dependent Nrf2/ARE pathway, PD-Feverfew may help protect the skin from numerous environmental aggressors. © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology.

Van Logtestijn M.D.A.,Imperial College London | Dominguez-Huttinger E.,Imperial College London | Stamatas G.N.,Johnson and Johnson Sante Beaute France | Tanaka R.J.,Imperial College London
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The stratum corneum (SC) provides a permeability barrier that limits the inflow and outflow of water. The permeability barrier is continuously and dynamically formed, maintained, and degraded along the depth, from the bottom to the top, of the SC. Naturally, its functioning and structure also change dynamically in a depth-dependent manner. While transepidermal water loss is typically used to assess the function of the SC barrier, it fails to provide any information about the dynamic mechanisms that are responsible for the depth-dependent characteristics of the permeability barrier. This paper aims to quantitatively characterize the depth-dependency of the permeability barrier using in vivo non-invasive measurement data for understanding the underlying mechanisms for barrier formation, maintenance, and degradation. As a framework to combine existing experimental data, we propose a mathematical model of the SC, consisting of multiple compartments, to explicitly address and investigate the depth-dependency of the SC permeability barrier. Using this mathematical model, we derive a measure of the water permeability barrier, i.e. resistance to water diffusion in the SC, from the measurement data on transepidermal water loss and water concentration profiles measured non-invasively by Raman spectroscopy. The derived resistance profiles effectively characterize the depth-dependency of the permeability barrier, with three distinct regions corresponding to formation, maintenance, and degradation of the barrier. Quantitative characterization of the obtained resistance profiles allows us to compare and evaluate the permeability barrier of skin with different morphology and physiology (infants vs adults, different skin sites, before and after application of oils) and elucidates differences in underlying mechanisms of processing barriers. The resistance profiles were further used to predict the spatial-temporal effects of skin treatments by in silico experiments, in terms of spatial-temporal dynamics of percutaneous water penetration. © 2015 van Logtestijn et al.

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