Pergola P.E.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio |
Gartenberg G.,Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research Development LLC |
Fu M.,Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research Development LLC |
Sun S.,Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research Development LLC |
And 2 more authors.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2010
Background and objectives: Extended-interval dosing of epoetin alfa (EPO) is commonly used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aimed to demonstrate that EPO dosed every 2 weeks (Q2W) and every 4 weeks (Q4W) was noninferior to once-weekly (QW) dosing. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: 430 anemic subjects with stage 3 to 4 CKD receiving a stable QW dose of EPO were randomized 1:1:2 to QW, Q2W, and Q4W dosing for 36 weeks. Hemoglobin (Hb) was measured weekly, and the dose of EPO was adjusted to maintain an Hb level of 11.0 to 11.9 g/dl. The primary endpoint was change in Hb from baseline to the average of the last 12 weeks of treatment. Results: Both the Q2W and Q4W dosing groups were noninferior to the QW group. The estimated difference of the mean change in Hb between Q2W and QW was-0.03 g/dl; and between Q4W and QW was-0.09 g/dl. From weeks 13 to 37, the mean percentage of weeks per subject with Hb 10.0 to 11.9 g/dl, inclusive, was 81% for QW, 81% for Q2W, and 75% for Q4W. Death occurred, respectively, in 4%, 3%, and 4%; thromboembolic vascular events occurred in 3%, 5%, and 3%; and serious adverse events occurred in 22%, 26%, and 26% of subjects. Conclusions: Q2W and Q4W EPO dosing maintained Hb levels in subjects with stage 3 to 4 CKD. Deaths, thromboembolic vascular events, and serious adverse events were comparable across the dosing groups. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Pharmacokinetics, efficacy and toxicity of different pegylated liposomal doxorubicin formulations in preclinical models: Is a conventional bioequivalence approach sufficient to ensure therapeutic equivalence of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin products?
Mamidi R.N.V.S.,Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research Development LLC |
Weng S.,ALZA Corp. |
Weng S.,Elan Inc. |
Stellar S.,Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research Development LLC |
And 7 more authors.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology | Year: 2010
Purpose: To examine whether a conventional bioequivalence approach is sufficient to ensure the therapeutic equivalence of liposomal products, the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and toxicity of different formulation variants of the marketed Doxil®/Caelyx® product, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), were evaluated in several preclinical models. Methods: Six different variants of the marketed PLD formulation were prepared by incorporating minor changes in the composition and liposome size of the original formulation. The pharmacokinetics of 5 formulations were evaluated in albino mice following i.v. administration at 6 mg/kg. Selected variants along with Doxil®/Caelyx® (formulation 1, Doxil-control) were tested for antitumor activity in the MDA-MB-231 xenograft mouse model following 3 repeated administrations at 2 mg/kg or 3 mg/kg (once weekly for 3 weeks) and/or toxicity in Cynomolgus monkeys following 6 repeated administrations at 2.5 or 4.0 mg/kg. Formulations 1-4 were tested for antitumor activity and formulations 1, 2, 6 and 7 were evaluated in a monkey toxicity study. The toxicokinetics of total doxorubicin was determined after the first and last dose in the monkey toxicity study. Results: In the albino mouse, formulations 2 and 3 had plasma pharmacokinetic profiles similar to Doxil-control (formulation 1). Although these three formulations had similar pharmacokinetic profiles, formulation 2 showed significantly (P < 0.05) longer survival time and better efficacy (reduced tumor volume) over other formulations tested for antitumor activity at the 3 mg/kg dose. In monkeys, formulation 2 gave systemic exposure of doxorubicin approximately the same as formulation 1; however, multi-focal degeneration of renal cortical tubules and hypocellularity of the bone marrow were observed with formulation 2 but not with formulation 1 (Doxil-control). Formulations 6 and 7 gave lower exposure to doxorubicin compared to Doxil-control, but were associated with higher severity and frequency of toxic effects (hematological effects, elevated liver enzymes). It was concluded that plasma pharmacokinetics and systemic exposure of doxorubicin did not correlate well with the antitumor activity and toxicity profiles for PLD products. Hence, a conventional bioequivalence approach is not appropriate for establishing therapeutic equivalence of generic PLD products. A carefully designed clinical study evaluating clinical safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics should be considered for establishing the therapeutic equivalency of generic versions of Doxil®. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.