Gong E.Y.,Johnson and Johnson Ltd
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013
Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) establish lifelong latent infections in infected hosts that reactivate Â-periodically and result in virus shedding and recurrent diseases, such as genital herpes. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) caused by HSV are a major public health problem worldwide. At present, the only effective antiviral drugs for treatment of HSV are nucleoside analogues, which are incorporated into the DNA chain and terminate the chain elongation during virus replication. With increasing emergence of drug resistance, novel drugs for new viral targets are warranted. In this chapter, several screening and profiling assays including plaque reduction assays, cytopathic effect inhibition assay, and in vitro cytotoxicity assay for identifying and evaluating inhibitors of HSV are described. Assays for mode of action studies, such as virus adsorption and penetration, are also presented. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Koletzki D.,Janssen Diagnostics BVBA |
Pattery T.,Janssen Diagnostics BVBA |
Fevery B.,Johnson and Johnson Ltd |
Vanhooren L.,Janssen Diagnostics BVBA |
Stuyver L.J.,Janssen Diagnostics BVBA
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013
Genotypic testing based on subtype-specific amplification and population Sanger sequencing for two nonstructural (NS) protein-coding regions, the NS3/4A protease and the NS5B polymerase, of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome is described here. The protocols include the molecular steps for RNA extraction, one-step RT-PCR followed by inner PCR and population Sanger sequencing, to obtain the sequence information of the target regions from the clinical isolates of HCV subtypes 1a and 1b, which can be used to detect any sequence change in the viral genome as for example caused by the development of drug resistance in these two common viral targets. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Henke R.M.,Thomson Reuters |
Goetzel R.Z.,Thomson Reuters |
Goetzel R.Z.,Emory University |
McHugh J.,Johnson and Johnson |
Isaac F.,Johnson and Johnson Ltd
Health Affairs | Year: 2011
Johnson & Johnson Family of Companies introduced its worksite health promotion program in 1979. The program evolved and is still in place after more than thirty years. We evaluated the program's effect on employees' health risks and health care costs for the period 2002-08. Measured against similar large companies, Johnson & Johnson experienced average annual growth in total medical spending that was 3.7 percentage points lower. Company employees benefited from meaningful reductions in rates of obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, tobacco use, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition. Average annual per employee savings were $565 in 2009 dollars, producing a return on investment equal to a range of $1.88-$3.92 saved for every dollar spent on the program. Because the vast majority of US adults participate in the workforce, positive effects from similar programs could lead to better health and to savings for the nation as a whole. © 2011 by Project HOPE - The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Sharma K.,University of California at San Diego |
Ix J.H.,University of California at San Diego |
Mathew A.V.,University of California at San Diego |
Cho M.,Mayo Medical School |
And 11 more authors.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2011
Pirfenidone is an oral antifibrotic agent that benefits diabetic nephropathy in animal models, but whether it is effective for human diabetic nephropathy is unknown. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 77 subjects with diabetic nephropathy who had elevated albuminuria and reduced estimated GFR (eGFR) (20 to 75 ml/min per 1.73 m2). The prespecified primary outcome was a change in eGFR after 1 year of therapy. We randomly assigned 26 subjects to placebo, 26 to pirfenidone at 1200 mg/d, and 25 to pirfenidone at 2400 mg/d. Among the 52 subjects who completed the study, the mean eGFR increased in the pirfenidone 1200-mg/d group (-3.3 ± 8.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2) whereas the mean eGFR decreased in the placebo group (-2.2 ± 4.8 ml/min per 1.73 m2; P = 0.026 versus pirfenidone at 1200 mg/d). The dropout rate was high (11 of 25) in the pirfenidone 2400-mg/d group, and the change in eGFR was not significantly different from placebo (-1.9 ± 6.7 ml/min per 1.73 m 2). Of the 77 subjects, 4 initiated hemodialysis in the placebo group, 1 in the pirfenidone 2400-mg/d group, and none in the pirfenidone 1200-mg/d group during the study (P = 0.25). Baseline levels of plasma biomarkers of inflammation and fibrosis significantly correlated with baseline eGFR but did not predict response to therapy. In conclusion, these results suggest that pirfenidone is a promising agent for individuals with overt diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2011 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Young K.D.,Laureate Institute for Brain Research |
Zotev V.,Laureate Institute for Brain Research |
Phillips R.,Laureate Institute for Brain Research |
Misaki M.,Laureate Institute for Brain Research |
And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
Background: Amygdala hemodynamic responses to positive stimuli are attenuated in major depressive disorder (MDD), and normalize with remission. Real-time functional MRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) offers a non-invasive method to modulate this regional activity. We examined whether depressed participants can use rtfMRI-nf to enhance amygdala responses to positive autobiographical memories, and whether this ability alters symptom severity. Methods: Unmedicated MDD subjects were assigned to receive rtfMRI-nf from either left amygdala (LA; experimental group, n = 14) or the horizontal segment of the intraparietal sulcus (HIPS; control group, n = 7) and instructed to contemplate happy autobiographical memories (AMs) to raise the level of a bar representing the hemodynamic signal from the target region to a target level. This 40s Happy condition alternated with 40s blocks of rest and counting backwards. A final Transfer run without neurofeedback information was included. Results: Participants in the experimental group upregulated their amygdala responses during positive AM recall. Significant pre-post scan decreases in anxiety ratings and increases in happiness ratings were evident in the experimental versus control group. A whole brain analysis showed that during the transfer run, participants in the experimental group had increased activity compared to the control group in left superior temporal gyrus and temporal polar cortex, and right thalamus. Conclusions: Using rtfMRI-nf from the left amygdala during recall of positive AMs, depressed subjects were able to selfregulate their amygdala response, resulting in improved mood. Results from this proof-of-concept study suggest that rtfMRI-nf training with positive AM recall holds potential as a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of depression. © 2014 Young et al.