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Mumbai, India

Johnson and Johnson Ltd

Mumbai, India

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Henke R.M.,Thomson Reuters | Goetzel R.Z.,Thomson Reuters | Goetzel R.Z.,Emory University | McHugh J.,Johnson and Johnson | Isaac F.,Inc. Johnson and Johnson
Health Affairs | Year: 2011

Johnson & Johnson Family of Companies introduced its worksite health promotion program in 1979. The program evolved and is still in place after more than thirty years. We evaluated the program's effect on employees' health risks and health care costs for the period 2002-08. Measured against similar large companies, Johnson & Johnson experienced average annual growth in total medical spending that was 3.7 percentage points lower. Company employees benefited from meaningful reductions in rates of obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, tobacco use, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition. Average annual per employee savings were $565 in 2009 dollars, producing a return on investment equal to a range of $1.88-$3.92 saved for every dollar spent on the program. Because the vast majority of US adults participate in the workforce, positive effects from similar programs could lead to better health and to savings for the nation as a whole. © 2011 by Project HOPE - The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

Koletzki D.,Janssen Diagnostics BVBA | Pattery T.,Janssen Diagnostics BVBA | Fevery B.,Johnson and Johnson Corporation | Vanhooren L.,Janssen Diagnostics BVBA | Stuyver L.J.,Janssen Diagnostics BVBA
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Genotypic testing based on subtype-specific amplification and population Sanger sequencing for two nonstructural (NS) protein-coding regions, the NS3/4A protease and the NS5B polymerase, of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome is described here. The protocols include the molecular steps for RNA extraction, one-step RT-PCR followed by inner PCR and population Sanger sequencing, to obtain the sequence information of the target regions from the clinical isolates of HCV subtypes 1a and 1b, which can be used to detect any sequence change in the viral genome as for example caused by the development of drug resistance in these two common viral targets. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Sharma K.,University of California at San Diego | Ix J.H.,University of California at San Diego | Mathew A.V.,University of California at San Diego | Cho M.,Mayo Medical School | And 11 more authors.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2011

Pirfenidone is an oral antifibrotic agent that benefits diabetic nephropathy in animal models, but whether it is effective for human diabetic nephropathy is unknown. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 77 subjects with diabetic nephropathy who had elevated albuminuria and reduced estimated GFR (eGFR) (20 to 75 ml/min per 1.73 m2). The prespecified primary outcome was a change in eGFR after 1 year of therapy. We randomly assigned 26 subjects to placebo, 26 to pirfenidone at 1200 mg/d, and 25 to pirfenidone at 2400 mg/d. Among the 52 subjects who completed the study, the mean eGFR increased in the pirfenidone 1200-mg/d group (-3.3 ± 8.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2) whereas the mean eGFR decreased in the placebo group (-2.2 ± 4.8 ml/min per 1.73 m2; P = 0.026 versus pirfenidone at 1200 mg/d). The dropout rate was high (11 of 25) in the pirfenidone 2400-mg/d group, and the change in eGFR was not significantly different from placebo (-1.9 ± 6.7 ml/min per 1.73 m 2). Of the 77 subjects, 4 initiated hemodialysis in the placebo group, 1 in the pirfenidone 2400-mg/d group, and none in the pirfenidone 1200-mg/d group during the study (P = 0.25). Baseline levels of plasma biomarkers of inflammation and fibrosis significantly correlated with baseline eGFR but did not predict response to therapy. In conclusion, these results suggest that pirfenidone is a promising agent for individuals with overt diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2011 by the American Society of Nephrology.

Von Korff M.,Group Health Research Institute | Shortreed S.M.,Group Health Research Institute | Saunders K.W.,Group Health Research Institute | Leresche L.,University of Washington | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pain | Year: 2014

Back pain outcomes may be improved and costs lowered through risk-stratified care, but relative performance of alternative item sets for predicting back pain outcomes has not been well characterized. We compared alternative prognostic item sets based on STarT Back and Chronic Pain Risk screeners in a cohort of patients initiating primary care for back pain. The STarT Back item set was brief and relied on binary responses, whereas the Chronic Pain Risk item set employed scaled responses and assessed pain persistence and diffuse pain. Patients (N = 571) were assessed soon after their initial visit and 502 (88%) were reassessed 4 months later. Items sets based on STarT Back and Chronic Pain Risk prognostic screeners, as well as a combination of items from both, were used to predict Chronic Pain Grade II-IV back pain at 4 months. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve estimates (95% confidence intervals) were.79 (.74-.83) for items based on the STarT Back,.80 (.75-.83) for items based on Chronic Pain Risk, and.81 (.77-.85) for a composite item set. Differences in prediction were modest. Items from 2 prognostic screeners, and both combined, achieved acceptable and similar prediction of unfavorable back pain outcomes. Perspective Given comparable predictive validity, choice among prognostic item sets should be based on clinical relevance, number of items, ease of administration, and item simplicity. © 2014 by the American Pain Society.

Avery J.A.,University of Tulsa | Drevets W.C.,University of Tulsa | Drevets W.C.,Johnson and Johnson Inc. | Moseman S.E.,University of Tulsa | And 5 more authors.
Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Background Somatic complaints and altered interoceptive awareness are common features in the clinical presentation of major depressive disorder (MDD). Recently, neurobiological evidence has accumulated demonstrating that the insula is one of the primary cortical structures underlying interoceptive awareness. Abnormal interoceptive representation within the insula may thus contribute to the pathophysiology and symptomatology of MDD. Methods We compared functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygenation level-dependent responses between 20 unmedicated adults with MDD and 20 healthy control participants during a task requiring attention to visceral interoceptive sensations and also assessed the relationship of this blood oxygenation level-dependent response to depression severity, as rated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Additionally, we examined between-group differences in insula resting-state functional connectivity and its relationship to Hamilton Depression Rating Scale ratings of depression severity. Results Relative to the healthy control subjects, unmedicated MDD subjects exhibited decreased activity bilaterally in the dorsal mid-insula cortex (dmIC) during interoception. Activity within the insula during the interoceptive attention task was negatively correlated with both depression severity and somatic symptom severity in depressed subjects. Major depressive disorder also was associated with greater resting-state functional connectivity between the dmIC and limbic brain regions implicated previously in MDD, including the amygdala, subgenual prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. Moreover, functional connectivity between these regions and the dmIC was positively correlated with depression severity. Conclusions Major depressive disorder and the somatic symptoms of depression are associated with abnormal interoceptive representation within the insula. © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

Narayana M.B.V.,Matrix | Chandrasekhar K.B.,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur | Rao B.M.,Johnson and Johnson Ltd
Journal of Chromatographic Science | Year: 2014

A validated specific stability-indicating reverse-phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative determination of Ambrisentan as well as its related substances in bulk samples, pharmaceutical dosage forms in the presence of degradation products and its related impurities. Forced degradation studies were performed on bulk samples of Ambrisentan as per the ICH-prescribed stress conditions using acid, base, oxidative, thermal stress and photolytic degradation to show the stability-indicating power of the LC method. Significant degradation in acidic, basic stress conditions was observed and no degradation was observed in other stress conditions. The chromatographic method was optimized using the samples generated from the forced degradation studies and the impurity-spiked solution. Good resolution between the peaks corresponds to Ambrisentan-related impurities and degradation products from the analyte were achieved on a SunFire C18 column using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate at a pH adjusted to 2.5 with ortho-phosphoric acid in water and a mixture of acetonitrile: methanol using a simple linear gradient. The detection was carried out at 225 nm. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for the Ambrisentan and its related impurities were established. The stressed test solutions were assayed against the qualified working standard of Ambrisentan and the mass balance in each case was between 98.9 and 100.3%, indicating that the developed LC method was stability indicating. Validation of the developed LC method was carried out as per the ICH requirements. The developed method was found to be suitable to check the quality of bulk samples of Ambrisentan at the time of batch release and also during its storage (long-term and accelerated stability). © The Author [2013].

Young K.D.,Laureate Institute for Brain Research | Zotev V.,Laureate Institute for Brain Research | Phillips R.,Laureate Institute for Brain Research | Misaki M.,Laureate Institute for Brain Research | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Amygdala hemodynamic responses to positive stimuli are attenuated in major depressive disorder (MDD), and normalize with remission. Real-time functional MRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) offers a non-invasive method to modulate this regional activity. We examined whether depressed participants can use rtfMRI-nf to enhance amygdala responses to positive autobiographical memories, and whether this ability alters symptom severity. Methods: Unmedicated MDD subjects were assigned to receive rtfMRI-nf from either left amygdala (LA; experimental group, n = 14) or the horizontal segment of the intraparietal sulcus (HIPS; control group, n = 7) and instructed to contemplate happy autobiographical memories (AMs) to raise the level of a bar representing the hemodynamic signal from the target region to a target level. This 40s Happy condition alternated with 40s blocks of rest and counting backwards. A final Transfer run without neurofeedback information was included. Results: Participants in the experimental group upregulated their amygdala responses during positive AM recall. Significant pre-post scan decreases in anxiety ratings and increases in happiness ratings were evident in the experimental versus control group. A whole brain analysis showed that during the transfer run, participants in the experimental group had increased activity compared to the control group in left superior temporal gyrus and temporal polar cortex, and right thalamus. Conclusions: Using rtfMRI-nf from the left amygdala during recall of positive AMs, depressed subjects were able to selfregulate their amygdala response, resulting in improved mood. Results from this proof-of-concept study suggest that rtfMRI-nf training with positive AM recall holds potential as a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of depression. © 2014 Young et al.

Gong E.Y.,Johnson and Johnson Corporation
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) establish lifelong latent infections in infected hosts that reactivate Â-periodically and result in virus shedding and recurrent diseases, such as genital herpes. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) caused by HSV are a major public health problem worldwide. At present, the only effective antiviral drugs for treatment of HSV are nucleoside analogues, which are incorporated into the DNA chain and terminate the chain elongation during virus replication. With increasing emergence of drug resistance, novel drugs for new viral targets are warranted. In this chapter, several screening and profiling assays including plaque reduction assays, cytopathic effect inhibition assay, and in vitro cytotoxicity assay for identifying and evaluating inhibitors of HSV are described. Assays for mode of action studies, such as virus adsorption and penetration, are also presented. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Famili A.,Johnson and Johnson Company | Palkar S.A.,Johnson and Johnson Company | Baldy W.J.,Johnson and Johnson Company
Physics of Fluids | Year: 2011

As inkjet printing technology is increasingly applied in a broader array of applications, careful characterization of its method of use is critical due to its inherent sensitivity. A common operational mode in inkjet technology known as drop-on-demand ejection is used as a way to deliver a controlled quantity of material to a precise location on a target. This method of operation allows ejection of individual or a sequence (burst) of drops based on a timed trigger event. This work presents an examination of sequences of drops as they are ejected, indicating a number of phenomena that must be considered when designing a drop-on-demand inkjet system. These phenomena appear to be driven by differences between the first ejected drop in a burst and those that follow it and result in a break-down of the linear relationship expected between driving amplitude and drop mass. This first drop, as quantified by high-speed videography and subsequent image analysis, can be different in morphology, trajectory, velocity, and volume from subsequent drops within a burst. These findings were confirmed orthogonally by both volume and mass measurement techniques which allowed quantitation down to single drops. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

Van Der Helm L.,Johnson and Johnson Corporation
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

This chapter describes the procedures for production of recombinant hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease from clinical samples, which can be used in the biochemical assays to assess the impact of different drug-resistant mutations in the NS3 protein from patients under therapy of protease inhibitors. It gives the details of expression and purification of NS3 protease using the pCold vectors that contains a promoter derived from the cold-shock genes to drive the expression of NS3 protein. This robust protocol enables a medium-throughput production of HCV NS3 proteins of all genotypes and sequences derived from patient specimen. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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