Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center

Baltimore, MD, United States

Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center

Baltimore, MD, United States
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Feeney M.J.,Consultant to the Food and Agriculture Industries | Dwyer J.,Tufts University | Hasler-Lewis C.M.,University of California at Davis | Milner J.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 24 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9-10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid.Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine aswell as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gutmicrobiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals thatmushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests thatmushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

Klassen A.C.,Drexel University | Caulfield L.E.,Center for Human Nutrition | Cheskin L.J.,Center for Human Nutrition | Cheskin L.J.,Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center | And 3 more authors.
Preventive Medicine Reports | Year: 2015

Objective: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to establish neighborhood built environment correlates of adiposity as measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. The utility and methodological gains of using this measure for built environment research were further investigated by comparing model fit across parallel models on body mass index z-scores and waist circumference. Methods: Pre-existing data collected from 2001 to 2011 on 576 overweight and obese Hispanic youth were compiled with built environment data, and 2000 census data for analyses conducted in 2012. Walking-distance buffers were built around participants' residential locations. Variables for park space, food access, walkability, and neighborhood socio-cultural aspects were entered into a multivariate regression model predicting percent body fat. Parallel models were built for body mass index z-score, and waist circumference. Results: Significant associations were found between percent body fat and supermarket access for boys, and percent body fat and increased park space and decreased neighborhood linguistic isolation for girls. Neighborhood socio-cultural characteristics accounted for more variance in obesity compared to body mass index z-score or waist circumference. Conclusion: Park access, food environment, and neighborhood socio-cultural characteristics are independent contributors to body fat in children, and the contribution of these risks differs by gender. There are incremental gains to using a more accurate measure of body fat in built environment obesity studies. © 2015.

Mahmooth Z.,Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center | Dedhia N.,Johns Hopkins University | Frutchey R.,Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center | Mercado C.E.,Georgetown University | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Medicine | Year: 2015

Background Helping patients control obesity remains a clinical challenge for internists, and African Americans experience obesity rates higher than other racial/ethnic groups. Purpose To investigate whether a behavioral theory-based mobile health intervention would enhance weight loss when added to standard care among overweight/obese African American adults. Methods A randomized controlled trial of 124 adults recruited from Baltimore-area African American churches. Participant follow-up ended March 2013. Participants were randomized to standard care (included one-on-one counseling sessions with a dietitian and a physician) or standard care plus daily tailored text messages for 6 months. Text messages were delivered in phases: preparation, reinforcement of participant-selected diet and exercise goals, reflection, goal integration, weight loss methods, and maintenance. There were follow-up visits at 3, 6, and 12 months. Primary outcome was weight change from baseline to end-intervention at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included weight change at 3 months, engagement, and satisfaction with the intervention. Results Sixty-three participants were randomized to the mobile health intervention and 61 to standard-care control. Weights were collected in-window for 45 (36.3%) at 3 months and 51 (41.1%) at 6 months. Mean weight loss at 3 months was 2.5 kg greater in the intervention group compared with standard care (95% confidence interval [CI], -4.3 to -0.6; P <.001), and 3.4 kg greater (95% CI, -5.2 to -1.7; P =.001) at 6 months. Degree of engagement with messages was correlated with weight loss. Conclusions While attrition was high, this study supports a tailored, interactive text-message intervention to enhance weight loss among obese African-American adults. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Kahan S.,George Washington University | Cheskin L.J.,Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center
Diabetes Educator | Year: 2012

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between magnitude of weight loss and improvement in percentage A1C (A1C%) among overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) undergoing weight reduction. Methods: Case records of patients enrolled in 2 university-based weight management programs were reviewed. Patients were sampled if they had a diagnosis of DM and had at least 1 documented A1C% reduction from their baseline value. Weight loss treatment was individualized and consisted of a calorie-restricted diet, a behavior modification plan, and a plan for increasing physical activity. Patient weights were measured at bimonthly visits. A1C% was measured every 3 months. Results: Seventy-two patients formed the study cohort. Mean baseline body mass index was 35.1 kg/m2, mean age was 52.6 years, and 59% were males. Mean starting A1C% was 8.6. Patients achieved significant mean weight loss (10.7 kg) at study exit. Weight loss of 6.5 kg (4.5% of baseline body weight), 12.2 kg (8.7%), and 15.9 kg (10.3%) was required to reduce A1C% by 0.5, 1, and 1.5, respectively, and it took a mean of 5.6, 8.7, and 10.1 months, respectively, to achieve this. After adjustment for antidiabetic medication intake, for every 10% weight loss, the predicted reduction in A1C% was 0.81. Conclusions: Intentional weight loss of 10% can potentially decrease A1C% by 0.81 among patients with type 2 DM. This finding may be clinically useful in encouraging and counseling a patient attempting weight loss. © 2012 The Author(s).

Poddar K.,Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center | Kolge S.,Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center | Bezman L.,Kennedy Krieger Institute | Cheskin L.J.,Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center
Nutrition in Clinical Practice | Year: 2011

Obesity is a global public health issue. Although the etiology of this global epidemic is multifactorial, most sufferers would be delighted to find a relatively effortless way to lose weight. Herbal "weight loss pills" can fit the bill. The authors systematically review the scientific evidence concerning various weight loss agents that are available over the counter or in food stores. The review provides a starting point to make informed choices among nutraceutical agents promoted for weight loss, as well as advice for incorporating healthy alternatives in the diet. © 2011 The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

Cheskin L.J.,Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center | Frutchey R.,Global Obesity Prevention Center | Mcdermott A.Y.,Global Obesity Prevention Center | Esposito L.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 2 more authors.
Pediatric Obesity | Year: 2016

Background: Research on the types of interventions needed for population-level prevention of childhood obesity in complex societal systems can benefit from greater use of systems-science concepts and tools. Objectives: We report outcomes of a funding programme promoting incorporation of systems-science approaches into studies of imminent policy or environmental changes potentially impacting childhood obesity. Methods: Seven funding cycles over 3 years yielded 172 initial submissions from 29 US states and 25 other countries were analyzed. Results: Submissions focused primarily on aspects of school or child-care settings, parks and recreational settings, or access to healthy food; about half reflected attention to systems perspectives. Conclusions: Analysis of initial submissions as well as the 15 funded projects showed some success in motivating use of systems concepts and tools but suggested the need for a more focused effort to educate and prepare the childhood obesity prevention research community for this potentially crucial type of research. © 2016 The Authors.

McCaffery J.M.,The Miriam Hospital | Papandonatos G.D.,Brown University | Peter I.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Huggins G.S.,Molecular Cardiology Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified consistent associations with obesity. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. Objective: The objective was to determine the association between obesity susceptibility loci and dietary intake. Design: The association of GWAS-identified obesity risk alleles (FTO, MC4R, SH2B1, BDNF, INSIG2, TNNI3K, NISCH-STAB1, MTIF3, MAP2K5, QPCTL/GIPR, and PPARG) with dietary intake, measured through food-frequency questionnaires, was investigated in 2075 participants from the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) clinical trial. We adjusted for age, sex, population stratification, and study site. Results: Obesity risk alleles at FTO rs1421085 significantly predicted more eating episodes per day (P = 0.001)- an effect that persisted after adjustment for body weight (P = 0.004). Risk variants within BDNF were significantly associated with more servings from the dairy product and the meat, eggs, nuts, and beans food groups (P ≤ 0.004). The risk allele at SH2B1 rs4788099 was significantly associated with more servings of dairy products (P = 0.001), whereas the risk allele at TNNI3K rs1514176 was significantly associated with a lower percentage of energy from protein (P = 0.002). Conclusion: These findings suggest that obesity risk loci may affect the pattern and content of food consumption among overweight or obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. The Look AHEAD Genetic Ancillary Study was registered at as NCT01270763 and the Look AHEAD study as NCT00017953. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.

Cheskin L.J.,Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center | Sonzone C.M.,Medifast Inc. | Davis L.M.,Villanova University
Neurology: Clinical Practice | Year: 2012

Obesity and excess body fat contribute to both the risk for and progression of several prevalent neurologic conditions. While obesity treatment is not generally considered part of the job description of the neurologist, we summarize the evidence for this important relationship, and describe ways that being mindful of diet and lifestyle factors in the neurologic patient can yield dividends for patient outcomes. Copyright © by AAN Enterprises, Inc.

Merchant A.T.,Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center | Vatanparast H.,Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center | Barlas S.,Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center | Cheskin L.J.,Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center
Nutrition in Clinical Practice | Year: 2010

Background: Little is known about the dietary habits of people with optimal body weight in communities with high overweight and obesity prevalence. Objective: To evaluate carbohydrate intake in relation to overweight and obesity in healthy, free-living adults. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Subjects/ Setting: The Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 is a cross-sectional survey of Canadians conducted in 2004-2005. There were 4,451 participants aged 18 years and older with anthropometric and dietary data and no comorbid conditions in this analysis. Main Outcome Measures: Outcome variables were body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) and overweight or obesity status (dichotomous) defined as BMI >25 compared with BMI <25 based on measured height and weight. Diet was evaluated by 24-hour dietary recall based on the Automated Multi-Pass Method. Statistical Analyses Performed: Weighted regression models with bootstrapping and cubic splines were used. Outcome variables were BMI and overweight or obesity, and predictors were daily nutrient intake. Adjustment for total energy intake, age, leisure time energy expenditure, sex, smoking, education, and income adequacy was performed. Results: Risk of overweight and obesity was decreased in all quartiles of carbohydrate intake compared with the lowest intake category (multivariate odds ratio quartile 2 = 0.63; 95% confidence interval: 0.49 to 0.90; odds ratio quartile 3 = 0.58; 95% confidence interval: 0.41 to 0.82; odds ratio quartile 4 = 0.60; 95% confidence interval: 0.42 to 0.85). Spline analyses revealed lowest risk among those consuming 290-310 g/day carbohydrates. Conclusions: Consuming a low-carbohydrate (approximately 47% energy) diet was associated with greater likelihood of being overweight or obese among healthy, free-living adults. Lowest risk may be obtained by consuming 47% to 64% of energy from carbohydrates. © 2010 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

PubMed | Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrition in clinical practice : official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition | Year: 2011

Obesity is a global public health issue. Although the etiology of this global epidemic is multifactorial, most sufferers would be delighted to find a relatively effortless way to lose weight. Herbal weight loss pills can fit the bill. The authors systematically review the scientific evidence concerning various weight loss agents that are available over the counter or in food stores. The review provides a starting point to make informed choices among nutraceutical agents promoted for weight loss, as well as advice for incorporating healthy alternatives in the diet.

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