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Haas N.B.,University of Pennsylvania | Manola J.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Uzzo R.G.,Fox Chase Cancer Center | Flaherty K.T.,Massachusetts General Hospital | And 20 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2016

Background Renal-cell carcinoma is highly vascular, and proliferates primarily through dysregulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway. We tested sunitinib and sorafenib, two oral anti-angiogenic agents that are effective in advanced renal-cell carcinoma, in patients with resected local disease at high risk for recurrence. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, phase 3 trial, we enrolled patients at 226 study centres in the USA and Canada. Eligible patients had pathological stage high-grade T1b or greater with completely resected non-metastatic renal-cell carcinoma and adequate cardiac, renal, and hepatic function. Patients were stratified by recurrence risk, histology, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, and surgical approach, and computerised double-blind randomisation was done centrally with permuted blocks. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive 54 weeks of sunitinib 50 mg per day orally throughout the first 4 weeks of each 6 week cycle, sorafenib 400 mg twice per day orally throughout each cycle, or placebo. Placebo could be sunitinib placebo given continuously for 4 weeks of every 6 week cycle or sorafenib placebo given twice per day throughout the study. The primary objective was to compare disease-free survival between each experimental group and placebo in the intention-to-treat population. All treated patients with at least one follow-up assessment were included in the safety analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00326898. Findings Between April 24, 2006, and Sept 1, 2010, 1943 patients from the National Clinical Trials Network were randomly assigned to sunitinib (n=647), sorafenib (n=649), or placebo (n=647). Following high rates of toxicity-related discontinuation after 1323 patients had enrolled (treatment discontinued by 193 [44%] of 438 patients on sunitinib, 199 [45%] of 441 patients on sorafenib), the starting dose of each drug was reduced and then individually titrated up to the original full doses. On Oct 16, 2014, because of low conditional power for the primary endpoint, the ECOG-ACRIN Data Safety Monitoring Committee recommended that blinded follow-up cease and the results be released. The primary analysis showed no significant differences in disease-free survival. Median disease-free survival was 5·8 years (IQR 1·6-8·2) for sunitinib (hazard ratio [HR] 1·02, 97·5% CI 0·85-1·23, p=0·8038), 6·1 years (IQR 1·7-not estimable [NE]) for sorafenib (HR 0·97, 97·5% CI 0·80-1·17, p=0·7184), and 6·6 years (IQR 1·5-NE) for placebo. The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were hypertension (105 [17%] patients on sunitinib and 102 [16%] patients on sorafenib), hand-foot syndrome (94 [15%] patients on sunitinib and 208 [33%] patients on sorafenib), rash (15 [2%] patients on sunitinib and 95 [15%] patients on sorafenib), and fatigue (110 [18%] patients on sunitinib and 44 [7%] patients on sorafenib). There were five deaths related to treatment or occurring within 30 days of the end of treatment; one patient receiving sorafenib died from infectious colitis while on treatment and four patients receiving sunitinib died, with one death due to each of neurological sequelae, sequelae of gastric perforation, pulmonary embolus, and disease progression. Revised dosing still resulted in high toxicity. Interpretation Adjuvant treatment with the VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors sorafenib or sunitinib showed no survival benefit relative to placebo in a definitive phase 3 study. Furthermore, substantial treatment discontinuation occurred because of excessive toxicity, despite dose reductions. These results provide a strong rationale against the use of these drugs for high-risk kidney cancer in the adjuvant setting and suggest that the biology of cancer recurrence might be independent of angiogenesis. Funding US National Cancer Institute and ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group, Pfizer, and Bayer. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | University of Pennsylvania, University of Houston, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and 15 more.
Type: Clinical Trial, Phase III | Journal: Lancet (London, England) | Year: 2016

Renal-cell carcinoma is highly vascular, and proliferates primarily through dysregulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway. We tested sunitinib and sorafenib, two oral anti-angiogenic agents that are effective in advanced renal-cell carcinoma, in patients with resected local disease at high risk for recurrence.In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, phase 3 trial, we enrolled patients at 226 study centres in the USA and Canada. Eligible patients had pathological stage high-grade T1b or greater with completely resected non-metastatic renal-cell carcinoma and adequate cardiac, renal, and hepatic function. Patients were stratified by recurrence risk, histology, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, and surgical approach, and computerised double-blind randomisation was done centrally with permuted blocks. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive 54 weeks of sunitinib 50 mg per day orally throughout the first 4 weeks of each 6 week cycle, sorafenib 400 mg twice per day orally throughout each cycle, or placebo. Placebo could be sunitinib placebo given continuously for 4 weeks of every 6 week cycle or sorafenib placebo given twice per day throughout the study. The primary objective was to compare disease-free survival between each experimental group and placebo in the intention-to-treat population. All treated patients with at least one follow-up assessment were included in the safety analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00326898.Between April 24, 2006, and Sept 1, 2010, 1943 patients from the National Clinical Trials Network were randomly assigned to sunitinib (n=647), sorafenib (n=649), or placebo (n=647). Following high rates of toxicity-related discontinuation after 1323 patients had enrolled (treatment discontinued by 193 [44%] of 438 patients on sunitinib, 199 [45%] of 441 patients on sorafenib), the starting dose of each drug was reduced and then individually titrated up to the original full doses. On Oct 16, 2014, because of low conditional power for the primary endpoint, the ECOG-ACRIN Data Safety Monitoring Committee recommended that blinded follow-up cease and the results be released. The primary analysis showed no significant differences in disease-free survival. Median disease-free survival was 58 years (IQR 16-82) for sunitinib (hazard ratio [HR] 102, 975% CI 085-123, p=08038), 61 years (IQR 17-not estimable [NE]) for sorafenib (HR 097, 975% CI 080-117, p=07184), and 66 years (IQR 15-NE) for placebo. The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were hypertension (105 [17%] patients on sunitinib and 102 [16%] patients on sorafenib), hand-foot syndrome (94 [15%] patients on sunitinib and 208 [33%] patients on sorafenib), rash (15 [2%] patients on sunitinib and 95 [15%] patients on sorafenib), and fatigue 110 [18%] patients on sunitinib [corrected]. There were five deaths related to treatment or occurring within 30 days of the end of treatment; one patient receiving sorafenib died from infectious colitis while on treatment and four patients receiving sunitinib died, with one death due to each of neurological sequelae, sequelae of gastric perforation, pulmonary embolus, and disease progression. Revised dosing still resulted in high toxicity.Adjuvant treatment with the VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors sorafenib or sunitinib showed no survival benefit relative to placebo in a definitive phase 3 study. Furthermore, substantial treatment discontinuation occurred because of excessive toxicity, despite dose reductions. These results provide a strong rationale against the use of these drugs for high-risk kidney cancer in the adjuvant setting and suggest that the biology of cancer recurrence might be independent of angiogenesis.US National Cancer Institute and ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group, Pfizer, and Bayer.


Mathew P.,University of New Mexico | Gerbing R.,Childrens Oncology Group | Alonzo T.A.,Childrens Oncology Group | Wallas T.,Childrens Oncology Group | And 10 more authors.
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2011

Based on its potential role in adult myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), the Children's Oncology Group (COG) embarked on a phase II study using amifostine in pediatric MDS (WHO 2001 criteria) patients. Responses were evaluated after two cycles. Ten patients were enrolled; five were deemed ineligible, and four withdrew after the first course. Only one patient completed two courses, and was found to be in complete remission. The study was closed after being open for 2 years due to slow accrual. Studying a rare disease like MDS may pose insurmountable obstacles even in a large clinical trials group such as COG, in part because of the changing definitions of MDS and the rarity of adult type MDS in children. The role of amifostine in pediatric MDS was not known at the time of study. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Mendoza-Naranjo A.,University College London | El-Naggar A.,Cancer Research Center | Wai D.H.,Childrens Hospital Los Angeles | Mistry P.,University College London | And 16 more authors.
EMBO Molecular Medicine | Year: 2013

Metastatic spread is the single-most powerful predictor of poor outcome in Ewing sarcoma (ES). Therefore targeting pathways that drive metastasis has tremendous potential to reduce the burden of disease in ES. We previously showed that activation of the ERBB4 tyrosine kinase suppresses anoikis, or detachment-induced cell death, and induces chemoresistance in ES cell lines in vitro. We now show that ERBB4 is transcriptionally overexpressed in ES cell lines derived from chemoresistant or metastatic ES tumours. ERBB4 activates the PI3K-Akt cascade and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and both pathways contribute to ERBB4-mediated activation of the Rac1 GTPase in vitro and in vivo. ERBB4 augments tumour invasion and metastasis in vivo, and these effects are blocked by ERBB4 knockdown. ERBB4 expression correlates significantly with reduced disease-free survival, and increased expression is observed in metastatic compared to primary patient-matched ES biopsies. Our findings identify a novel ERBB4-PI3K-Akt-FAK-Rac1 pathway associated with aggressive disease in ES. These results predict that therapeutic targeting of ERBB4, alone or in combination with cytotoxic agents, may suppress the metastatic phenotype in ES. The Authors show that ERBB4 is a biological driver of metastasis in the pediatric bone tumour Ewing sarcoma and identify a novel ERBB4-PI3K-Akt-FAK-Rac1 pathway associated with aggressive disease. © 2013 The Authors.


Abd Elmoneim A.,Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins | Gore L.,Aurora University | Ricklis R.M.,Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins | Boklan J.,Phoenix Childrens Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2012

Background: By inhibiting DNA repair, clofarabine (CLO) may augment cyclophosphamide (CY)-induced DNA damage and apoptosis. We performed a Phase I study for refractory and/or relapsed (R/R) leukemia in children to determine maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of time-sequential CLO followed by CY. Procedure: Thirteen patients with (R/R) ALL (n=8) and AML (N=5), median age 9 years (range: 2-12 years), were treated with escalating doses of CLO on days 1, 2, 3 and 8, 9, 10 and CY 200mg/m2/day on days 0 and 1 then 400mg/m2/day on days 2, 3, 8, 9, and 10. Ten patients were treated at dose level 1 (DL1) (CLO 20mg/m2/day) and three patients at DL2 (CLO 30mg/m2/day). The average number of prior chemotherapies was 8.9. DNA damage testing was performed before treatment on day 0, and 2hours after CY on day 0, before sequential CLO, CY treatment on day 1, and 2hours after CLO followed by CY on day 1. Results: Two patients at DL2 had dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) that included hypotension with cardio-respiratory failure (1) and hepato-renal failure (1). Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 2/11 (18.2%) and partial remission (PR) in 2/11 (18.2%) for an overall response (OR) of 36.4%. The use of CLO before CY augmented CY-induced DNA damage in leukemic blasts compared to CY alone. Conclusion: In pediatric patients with R/R leukemia, 20mg/m2/day is the MTD for CLO in timed sequential combination with CY. Increased DNA damage with the use of this combination suggests a mechanism for the sequential timing of these two chemotherapeutic agents. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Santini V.,Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Careggi | Fenaux P.,Paris University | Mufti G.J.,King's College | Hellstrom-Lindberg E.,Karolinska University Hospital | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Haematology | Year: 2010

Objective: Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) treatment can initially worsen patients' clinical condition and they may discontinue therapy before achieving benefit. We present previously unpublished data from two large phase III trials describing common adverse events (AEs) associated with azacitidine and methods to manage them. Methods: In the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9221 study, patients with any French-American-British (FAB) subtype of MDS were randomized to azacitidine or best supportive care (BSC). After 56 d, patients randomized to BSC with disease progression could cross over to receive azacitidine. In the AZA-001 study, patients with higher-risk MDS (FAB-defined refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB), RAEB in transformation, or chronic myelomonocitic leukaemia and IPSS int-2 or high) were randomized to azacitidine or to conventional care regimens (CCR), which included low-dose ara-C, BSC, or intensive chemotherapy. In both studies, azacitidine dose was 75 mg/m 2/d SC for 7 d every 28 d. AEs were graded per National Cancer Institute's Common Toxicity Criteria version 2.0 (AZA-001) or CALGB Expanded CTC (CALGB 9221). Results: In safety-evaluable patients in AZA-001 (N = 175) or CALGB 9221 (N = 150), the most common AEs with azacitidine included hematologic (eg, cytopenias) and non-hematologic administration-related events (eg, injection-site reactions and gastrointestinal disorders). Most AEs were transient and resolved during ongoing therapy (> 83%). Hematologic AEs, most frequently observed during early treatment cycles, decreased during subsequent cycles and were usually managed with dosing delays (23-29%). Gastrointestinal symptoms were primarily managed with anti-emetics and laxatives. Conclusion: Hematologic and non-hematologic AEs with azacitidine decreased in frequency as treatment continued. Awareness of the onset, duration and management of AEs can facilitate treatment, permitting patients to continue therapy for maximum benefit. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


PubMed | Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins
Type: Clinical Trial, Phase I | Journal: Pediatric blood & cancer | Year: 2012

By inhibiting DNA repair, clofarabine (CLO) may augment cyclophosphamide (CY)-induced DNA damage and apoptosis. We performed a Phase I study for refractory and/or relapsed (R/R) leukemia in children to determine maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of time-sequential CLO followed by CY.Thirteen patients with (R/R) ALL (n=8) and AML (N=5), median age 9 years (range: 2-12 years), were treated with escalating doses of CLO on days 1, 2, 3 and 8, 9, 10 and CY 200mg/m(2) /day on days 0 and 1 then 400mg/m(2) /day on days 2, 3, 8, 9, and 10. Ten patients were treated at dose level 1 (DL1) (CLO 20mg/m(2) /day) and three patients at DL2 (CLO 30mg/m(2) /day). The average number of prior chemotherapies was 8.9. DNA damage testing was performed before treatment on day 0, and 2hours after CY on day 0, before sequential CLO, CY treatment on day 1, and 2hours after CLO followed by CY on day 1.Two patients at DL2 had dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) that included hypotension with cardio-respiratory failure (1) and hepato-renal failure (1). Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 2/11 (18.2%) and partial remission (PR) in 2/11 (18.2%) for an overall response (OR) of 36.4%. The use of CLO before CY augmented CY-induced DNA damage in leukemic blasts compared to CY alone.In pediatric patients with R/R leukemia, 20mg/m(2) /day is the MTD for CLO in timed sequential combination with CY. Increased DNA damage with the use of this combination suggests a mechanism for the sequential timing of these two chemotherapeutic agents.

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