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Baltimore, MD, United States

The Johns Hopkins Hospital is the teaching hospital and biomedical research facility of Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. It was founded using money from a bequest by philanthropist Johns Hopkins. The Johns Hopkins Hospital and the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine are the founding institutions of modern American medicine and are the birthplace of numerous traditions including rounds, residents and housestaff. Many medical specialties were formed at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, including neurosurgery, by Harvey Cushing; cardiac surgery by Alfred Blalock; pediatrics and child psychiatry, by Leo Kanner.The Johns Hopkins Hospital is widely regarded as one of the world's greatest hospitals. It was ranked by U.S. News & World Report as the best overall hospital in America for 21 consecutive years . In 2012 it was briefly supplanted by the Massachusetts General Hospital, but regained the top position in 2013, before moving to third place in 2014. Wikipedia.

Lutty G.A.,Johns Hopkins Hospital
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2013

Hyperglycemia has toxic effects on almost all cells in the body. Ophthalmic complications of hyperglycemia are most profound in cornea and retina. Seventy percent of diabetics suffer from corneal complications, collectively called diabetic keratopathy, which includes include recurrent erosions, delayed wound healing, ulcers, and edema. Confocal microscopy has permitted in vivo imaging of corneal nerves, which are also affected in diabetic subjects. Gene therapies upregulating MNNG HOS transforming gene (cMet) and/or downregulating MMP10 and cathepsin S are potential future therapies for diabetic keratopathy. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common cause of blindness in people over the age of 50. There is accumulating evidence that DR is an inflammatory disease. The initial events in animal models of DR are increased vascular permeability and leukostasis. This binding of leukocytes to the endothelium results from an increase in intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on the retinal capillary endothelium (EC) and expression of CD11/CD18 on the surface of the activated leukocyte. We have observed polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) at sites of EC vascular dysfunction in diabetic retinas as well as choroid. Anti-inflammatory drugs like etanercept, aspirin, or meloxicam reduce leukostasis and EC death. Future therapies may include repopulation of the acellular capillaries after EC and pericyte death with vascular progenitors made from the patient's own blood cells. © The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

Parker A.M.,Johns Hopkins Hospital
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE:: To conduct a systematic review and metaanalysis of the prevalence, risk factors, and prevention/treatment strategies for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in critical illness survivors.DATA SOURCES:: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library from inception through March 5, 2014.STUDY SELECTION:: Eligible studies met the following criteria: 1) adult general/nonspecialty ICU, 2) validated posttraumatic stress disorder instrument greater than or equal to 1 month post-ICU, and 3) sample size greater than or equal to 10 patients.DATA EXTRACTION:: Duplicate independent review and data abstraction from all eligible titles/abstracts/full-text articles.DATA SYNTHESIS:: The search identified 2,817 titles/abstracts, with 40 eligible articles on 36 unique cohorts (n = 4,260 patients). The Impact of Event Scale was the most common posttraumatic stress disorder instrument. Between 1 and 6 months post-ICU (six studies; n = 456), the pooled mean (95% CI) Impact of Event Scale score was 20 (17–24), and the pooled prevalences of clinically important posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (95% CI) were 25% (18–34%) and 44% (36–52%) using Impact of Event Scale thresholds greater than or equal to 35 and greater than or equal to 20, respectively. Between 7 and 12 months post-ICU (five studies; n = 698), the pooled mean Impact of Event Scale score was 17 (9–24), and pooled prevalences of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were 17% (10–26%) and 34% (22–50%), respectively. ICU risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms included benzodiazepine administration and post-ICU memories of frightening ICU experiences. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were associated with worse quality of life. In European-based studies: 1) an ICU diary was associated with a significant reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, 2) a self-help rehabilitation manual was associated with significant posttraumatic stress disorder symptom reduction at 2 months, but not 6 months; and 3) a nurse-led ICU follow-up clinic did not reduce posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.CONCLUSIONS:: Clinically important posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms occurred in one fifth of critical illness survivors at 1-year follow-up, with higher prevalence in those who had comorbid psychopathology, received benzodiazepines, and had early memories of frightening ICU experiences. In European studies, ICU diaries reduced posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Copyright © by 2015 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Kurman R.J.,Johns Hopkins Hospital
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2013

A new paradigm for the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer has recently been proposed which helps to explain persistent problems in describing the development and diverse morphology of these neoplasms. The paradigm incorporates recent advances in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of epithelial 'ovarian' cancer with new insights into the origin of these tumors. Correlated clinicopathologic and molecular genetic studies led to the development of a dualistic model that divides all the various histologic types of epithelial ovarian carcinomas into two broad categories designated 'type I' and 'type II'. The prototypic type I tumor is low-grade serous carcinoma and the prototypic type II tumor is high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs). As the serous tumors comprise ∼70% of all epithelial ovarian tumors and account for the majority of deaths, the serous tumors will be the subject of this review. There are marked differences between the low-grade and high-grade serous tumors. Briefly, the former are indolent, present in stage I (tumor confined to the ovary) and develop from well-established precursors, so-called 'atypical proliferative (borderline) tumors,' which are characterized by specific mutations, including KRAS, BRAF and ERBB2; they are relatively genetically stable. In contrast, HGSCs are aggressive, present in the advanced stage, and develop from intraepithelial carcinomas in the fallopian tube. They harbor TP53 mutations in over 95% of cases, but rarely harbor the mutations detected in the low-grade serous tumors. At the time of diagnosis they demonstrate marked chromosomal aberrations but over the course of the disease these changes remain relatively stable. Along with the recent advances in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors, studies have demonstrated that the long sought for precursor of ovarian HGSC appears to develop from an occult intraepithelial carcinoma in the fimbrial region of the fallopian tube designated 'serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC)' and involves the ovary secondarily. Another possible mechanism for the development of ''ovarian'' HGSC is implantation of normal fimbrial epithelium on the denuded ovarian surface at the site of rupture when ovulation occurs. We speculate that this tubal epithelium can result in the formation of a cortical inclusion cyst (CICs) that can then undergo malignant transformation. Thus, serous tumors may develop from inclusion cysts, as has been previously proposed, but by a process of implantation of tubal (müllerian-type) tissue rather than by a process of metaplasia from ovarian surface epithelium (OSE, mesothelial). The dualistic model serves as a framework for studying ovarian cancer and can assist investigators in organizing this complex group of neoplasms. In conjunction with the recognition that the majority of 'ovarian' carcinomas originate outside the ovary, this model also facilitates the development of new and novel approaches to prevention, screening and treatment of this devastating disease. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.

Hoke A.,Johns Hopkins Hospital
Neurotherapeutics | Year: 2012

Peripheral neuropathies are common neurological diseases, and various animal models have been developed to study disease pathogenesis and test potential therapeutic drugs. Three commonly studied disease models with huge public health impact are diabetic peripheral neuropathy, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, and human immunodeficiency virus-associated sensory neuropathies. A common theme in these animal models is the comprehensive use of pathological, electrophysiological, and behavioral outcome measures that mimic the human disease. In recent years, the focus has shifted to the use of outcome measures that are also available in clinical use and can be done in a blinded and quantitative manner. One such evaluation tool is the evaluation of epidermal innervation with a simple skin biopsy. Future clinical trials will be needed to validate the translational usefulness of this outcome measure and validation against accepted outcome measures that rely on clinical symptoms or examination findings in patients. © 2012 The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc.

Calkins H.,Johns Hopkins Hospital
Circulation Journal | Year: 2015

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is a rare, inherited cardiomyopathy characterized by ventricular arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death, and right ventricular dysfunction. Since the first major description of this disease, much has been learned about ARVD/C. One of the main breakthroughs was the discovery that mutations in desmosomal proteins are the most frequent genetic basis of ARVD/C. Today, genetic testing plays an important role in both the diagnosis of ARVD/C and cascade family screening. Much has also been learned concerning the optimal approaches to diagnosis. The 2010 Task Force Diagnostic criteria for ARVD/C represent the standard for diagnosis today. We have also learned much about the importance of proband status and the 24-h PVC count to assess sudden death risk, and the importance of exercise both in the development of ARVD/C in susceptible individuals and in defining the course of the disease. From a treatment perspective, placement of ICDs in specific subsets of patients with ARVD/C who are at increased risk of sudden death is important. The techniques of VT ablation have also evolved over time and are valuable components of our management strategies for the ARVD/C patient today. This review will provide an update on ARVD/C, with specific attention to some of the contributions to this field reported by the Johns Hopkins ARVD/C Program. © 2015, Japanese Circulation Society. All rights reserved.

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