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Baltimore Highlands, MD, United States

The Fostering African American Improvement in Total Health! (FAITH!) Nutrition Education Program is a theory-based, multicomponent health intervention developed and operated in partnership with an East Baltimore church. The program aims to improve eating habits, as well as knowledge and beliefs about healthy eating, among African American adults in order to prevent diseases related to dietary choices. This article addresses the development, design, and formative research that informed the FAITH! program. The main program components are also discussed. Program design used a framework for strategic intervention planning (PRECEDE-PROCEED), and health education theories informed the evaluation process. Formative research was conducted to incorporate the needs and assets of the priority population. The main program components are culturally tailored educational materials, lectures and discussions on diet and related diseases, video presentations on healthy eating, healthy cooking demonstrations/food samples, evaluation, and a church-run healthy food pantry. Source

Weiss C.O.,Michigan State University | Weiss C.O.,Johns Hopkins University | Segal J.B.,Johns Hopkins University | Varadhan R.,Johns Hopkins University | Varadhan R.,Johns Hopkins Center on Aging and Health
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety

Purpose: To propose methods for the quantitative assessment of the applicability of evidence from a trial to a target sample using individual data. Methods: Demonstration was with a trial of drug therapy to prevent mortality and an accompanying registry of people with heart failure. Principal components analysis with biplots did not identify measurement discrepancies. Multiple imputation with chained equations addressed missing predictor values. A proportional hazards model with interaction term, including graphical interpretation and a multivariate interaction test, identified heterogeneity of treatment effect. An interval of homogeneity of treatment effect was the interval of the baseline risk of outcome in which no two treatment effects were statistically significantly different. Absolute risk reduction for individuals was estimated for both benefit and harm outcomes and presented in a bivariate treatment effects scatterplot. Results: Overall, the trial evidence applied to most of the registry according to overlapping distributions of estimated benefit and harm. However, 52% of trial and 33% of registry participants were estimated to have net benefit, and 14% of trial and 36% of registry participants were estimated to have strong net harmful treatment effect, that is, the individual estimate of harm was more than twice the estimate of benefit. Conclusions: The proposed methods provide quantitative assessment of the applicability of trial evidence to a target sample. They combine the strengths of different study designs, namely, unbiased effects estimation from trials and representation in observational studies, while addressing the practical challenges of combining information, namely, measurement discrepancies and missing data. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Kamil R.J.,Johns Hopkins Center on Aging and Health | Genther D.J.,Johns Hopkins University | Lin F.R.,Johns Hopkins University
Ear and Hearing

DESIGN: We examined 3557 participants aged 50 and older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles 1999-2006 and 2009-2010. We examined the relationship between objective and subjective hearing impairment using percent correct classification and misclassification bias in analyses stratified by gender, age group, race/ethnicity, and education.RESULTS: We found that younger participants tended to overestimate and older participants underestimate their hearing impairment. Older women, blacks, and Hispanics were less accurate in self-reporting than their respective younger age groups.CONCLUSION: The association between subjective and objective hearing differs across gender, age, race/ethnicity, and education, and this observation should be considered by clinicians and researchers employing self-reported hearing.OBJECTIVES: Self-reported hearing impairment is often used to gauge objective hearing loss in both clinical settings and research studies. The aim of this study was to examine whether demographic factors affect the accuracy of subjective, self-reported hearing in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Lin F.R.,Johns Hopkins Center on Aging and Health | Yaffe K.,University of California at San Francisco | Xia J.,Johns Hopkins Center on Aging and Health | Xue Q.-L.,Johns Hopkins Center on Aging and Health | And 6 more authors.
JAMA Internal Medicine

Background: Whether hearing loss is independently associated with accelerated cognitive decline in older adults is unknown. Methods: We studied 1984 older adults (mean age, 77.4 years) enrolled in the Health ABC Study, a prospective observational study begun in 1997-1998. Our baseline cohort consisted of participants without prevalent cognitive impairment (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination [3MS] score, ≥ 80) who underwent audiometric testing in year 5. Participants were followed up for 6 years. Hearing was defined at baseline using a pure-tone average of thresholds at 0.5 to 4 kHz in the better-hearing ear. Cognitive testing was performed in years 5, 8, 10, and 11 and consisted of the 3MS (measuring global function) and the Digit Symbol Substitution test (measuring executive function). Incident cognitive impairment was defined as a 3MS score of less than 80 or a decline in 3MS score of more than 5 points from baseline. Mixedeffects regression and Cox proportional hazards regression models were adjusted for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: In total, 1162 individuals with baseline hearing loss (pure-tone average ≲γτ∀ 25 dB) had annual rates of decline in 3MS and Digit Symbol Substitution test scores that were 41% and 32% greater, respectively, than those among individuals with normal hearing. On the 3MS, the annual score changes were -0.65 (95% CI, -0.73 to -0.56) vs -0.46 (95% CI,-0.55 to-0.36) points per year (P=.004). On the Digit Symbol Substitution test, the annual score changes were-0.83 (95% CI,-0.94 to-0.73) vs-0.63 (95% CI,-0.75 to-0.51) points per year (P=.02). Compared to those with normal hearing, individuals with hearing loss at baseline had a 24% (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.05-1.48) increased risk for incident cognitive impairment. Rates of cognitive decline and the risk for incident cognitive impairment were linearly associated with the severity of an individual's baseline hearing loss. Conclusions: Hearing loss is independently associated with accelerated cognitive decline and incident cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults. Further studies are needed to investigate what the mechanistic basis of this association is and whether hearing rehabilitative interventions could affect cognitive decline.. © 2013 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source

Gottesman R.F.,Welch Center for Prevention | Rebok G.W.,Johns Hopkins Center on Aging and Health
International Psychogeriatrics

Background: The prevalence of both type II diabetes mellitus (DM) and cognitive impairment is high and increasing in older adults. We examined the extent to which DM diagnosis was associated with poorer cognitive performance and dementia diagnosis in a population-based cohort of US older adults. Methods: We studied 7,606 participants in the National Health and Aging Trends Study, a nationally representative cohort of Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. DM and dementia diagnosis were based on self-report from participants or proxy respondents, and participants completed a word-list memory test, the Clock Drawing Test, and gave a subjective assessment of their own memory. Results: In unadjusted analyses, self-reported DM diagnosis was associated with poorer immediate and delayed word recall, worse performance on the Clock Drawing Test, and poorer self-rated memory. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, body mass index, depression and anxiety symptoms, and medical conditions, DM was associated with poorer immediate and delayed word recall and poorer self-rated memory, but not with the Clock Drawing Test performance or self-reported dementia diagnosis. After excluding participants with a history of stroke, DM diagnosis was associated with poorer immediate and delayed word recall and the Clock Drawing Test performance, and poorer self-rated memory, but not with self-reported dementia diagnosis. Conclusions: In this recent representative sample of older Medicare enrollees, self-reported DM was associated with poorer cognitive test performance. Findings provide further support for DM as a potential risk factor for poor cognitive outcomes. Studies are needed that investigate whether DM treatment prevents cognitive decline. © International Psychogeriatric Association 2014. Source

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