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Gielen A.C.,Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy
Women's Health Issues | Year: 2014

Background: There is a need for effective interventions that enable women in current or past violent relationships to reduce their risk of revictimization. One approach that can be taken is safety planning, where advocates and women talk about strategies that theoretically increase the women's safety. Although this process is common, there is little empirical research focusing on the effectiveness of the safety strategies. Methods: This systematic review examines the frequency with which women report using safety strategies and their effectiveness at reducing risk of revictimization. Results: Nine studies reviewed confirm prior research, namely, that women in intimate partner violence situations are using a variety of safety strategies at varying frequencies to protect themselves. Results from two studies looking at whether use of safety strategies reduces a woman's risk of future violence provide modest support for a greater risk of revictimization among women who used resistance strategies. Seven studies examined the perceived helpfulness of the strategies. Women who involved other individuals reported that interaction as helpful. There are several limitations to this review, including the focus on perceived helpfulness. What is reported here is not an objective assessment of safety strategy effectiveness. We were also not able to determine whether strategies women reported using were actually discussed during safety planning. Conclusion: There is a dearth of literature focusing on the effectiveness of safety strategies. Women and advocates talk about safety strategies we know very little about. Additional research examining the consequences of using safety strategies is needed because what is known now is preliminary and limited. © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Source


Gielen A.C.,Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy | Green L.W.,University of California at San Francisco
Health Education and Behavior | Year: 2015

Motor vehicle safety and tobacco control are among the greatest public health achievements of the 20th century, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. As the number of miles traveled in the United States multiplied 10 times from the 1920s to the 1990s, the annual motor vehicle crash death rate per vehicle mile traveled decreased by 90%. Similarly, tobacco-related deaths from heart disease, stroke, and cancer were rapidly mounting over the first two thirds of the 20th century. Then, in the last third of the century, tobacco consumption decreased by more than 50%, and rates of heart disease and stroke deaths, and later cancer deaths, declined similarly. This analysis addresses the central question of what lessons can be learned from these success stories that will help public health professionals successfully tackle new and emerging health behavior problems of today and tomorrow? Surveillance, research, multilevel interventions, environmental modifications, and strong policies were key to reducing motor vehicle- and tobacco-related health problems. Generating public support and advocacy, and changing social norms also played critical roles in promoting the safer and smoke-free behaviors. Lessons learned include the need for evidence-based practices and interventions that are ecologically comprehensive with an emphasis on changing environmental determinants and capitalizing on the concept of reciprocal determinism. The analysis concludes with a description of how the PRECEDE-PROCEED planning framework can be used to apply the lessons from motor vehicle safety and tobacco control to other public health threats. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education. Source


Vernick J.S.,Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy | Kromm J.N.,Rti International
Epidemiologic Reviews | Year: 2012

Occupants of smaller, lighter passenger cars are more likely to be killed or injured in collisions with larger, heavier sport utility vehicles and light trucks than in collisions with other cars. Interventions are needed to reduce this vehicle "incompatibility" and its consequences. The authors conducted a systematic literature review to identify evaluations of interventions to reduce incompatibility. They reviewed engineering, biomedical, and other technical literature. To be included, a study must have 1) evaluated an intervention to reduce vehicle incompatibility, or its consequences, in a crash; 2) reported new research; and 3) been published in English from 1990 to 2010. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Interventions were designed to reduce the aggressivity of larger vehicles or improve the crashworthiness of smaller vehicles. Effective interventions included 1) modified bumper heights, 2) improved side strength of smaller vehicles, 3) side-impact air bags, 4) changes to vehicle stiffness, and 5) modifications of other front-end structures. Some of the interventions shown to be effective are now in wide use. However, others have yet to be required by regulators or voluntarily agreed to by manufacturers. If larger, heavier vehicles remain on the nation's roads, countermeasures will be needed to reduce risks for occupants of other vehicles. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. Source


Kercher C.,Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy | Swedler D.I.,Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy | Pollack K.M.,Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy | Pollack K.M.,Johns Hopkins Center for Occupational Safety and Health | Webster D.W.,Center for Gun Policy and Research
Injury Prevention | Year: 2013

Objective To describe the law enforcement officer (LEO), encounter, perpetrator and victim characteristics of domestic disturbance-related LEO homicides in the USA from 1996 to 2010. Methods Narrative text analysis was conducted on the Federal Bureau of Investigation's annual report 'Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted'. Potential cases were confirmed if the narrative included the term 'domestic disturbance' or a domestic disturbance situation was described. Results 116 LEOs were killed while responding to domestic disturbance calls. Ninety-five per cent of these homicides were committed with a firearm. Sixty-seven per cent of LEOs were wearing body armour when killed; however, 52% received the fatal wound to the head/ neck. Sixty-one per cent of suspects had a criminal history mentioned within the narratives and perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) were more likely to be killed by LEOs than suspects involved in other forms of domestic violence. Victims of the domestic disturbance were killed in 21% of the IPV-related LEO homicide cases as opposed to only 5% of other domestic disturbance calls. A firearm was the most common weapon used in the murder of a domestic disturbance victim (86%). Conclusions This study describes domestic disturbance-related LEO homicides. Future research in this area should further examine the dangers unique to domestic disturbance calls. A longitudinal analysis could provide greater understanding of the injury and mortality risks faced by LEOs, in order to inform homicide prevention among law enforcement. Source


Ballard S.-B.,U.S. Navy | Beaty L.P.,Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy | Baker S.P.,Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2013

Introduction This study provides new public health data concerning the US commercial air tour industry. Risk factors for fatality in air tour crashes were analyzed to determine the value of the FIA Score in predicting fatal outcomes. Methods Using the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) General Aviation and Air Taxi Survey and National Transportation Safety Board data, the incidence of commercial air tour crashes from 2000 through 2010 was calculated. Fatality risk factors for crashes occurring from 2000 through 2011 were analyzed using regression methods. The FIA Score, Li and Baker's fatality risk index, was validated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results The industry-wide commercial air tour crash rate was 2.7 per 100,000 flight hours. The incidence rates of Part 91 and 135 commercial air tour crashes were 3.4 and 2.3 per 100,000 flight hours, respectively (relative risk [RR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.1, P = 0.015). Of the 152 air tour crashes that occurred from 2000 through 2011, 30 (20%) involved at least one fatality and, on average, 3.5 people died per fatal crash. Fatalities were associated with three major risk factors: fire (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 5.1, 95% CI 1.5-16.7, P = 0.008), instrument meteorological conditions (AOR 5.4, 95% CI 1.1-26.4, P = 0.038), and off-airport location (AOR 7.2, 95% CI 1.6-33.2, P = 0.011). The area under the FIA Score's ROC curve was 0.79 (95% CI 0.71-0.88). Discussion Commercial air tour crash rates were high relative to similar commercial aviation operations. Disparities between Part 91 and 135 air tour crash rates reflect regulatory disparities that require FAA action. The FIA Score appeared to be a valid measurement of fatal risk in air tour crashes. The FIA should prioritize interventions that address the three major risk factors identified by this study. © Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

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