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Soares N.S.,Autism and Developmental Medicine Institute | Baum R.A.,Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics | Frick K.D.,Johns Hopkins Carey Business School
Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics | Year: 2015

Experience and available research suggest that Developmental Behavioral Pediatric (DBP) practice is both complex and variable. Variability involves multiple aspects of DBP care, from activities before the visit (e.g. triage and collecting information) to activities during (e.g. history taking and testing) and after the visit (e.g. care coordination). Together these activities represent workflow, a series of clinical events by which health care is delivered. In complex systems, workflow variation often suggests the presence of inefficiency or inconsistent quality. Given the current environment of increasing health care costs and an increasing focus on quality, DBP practitioners must be mindful of these concepts for the field of DBP to remain viable. In order to characterize current DBP practice and identify common challenges, a workshop was developed with the ultimate goal of identifying potential solutions for improving both quality and efficiency. This paper summarizes the workshop findings and proposes future directions to foster improvements in DBP workflow. © 2014 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Source


Xu Y.,Shanghai University | Bisi A.,Purdue University | Dada M.,Johns Hopkins Carey Business School
Operations Research Letters | Year: 2010

We revisit the classical inventory model for which (s,S) policies are optimal. We consider the finite and infinite horizon versions of the lost sales problem. New structural properties are developed for the optimal policy and cost function. These properties are then used to develop computational schemes for the lost sales problem with Erlang demands. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Xu Y.,Shanghai University | Bisi A.,Purdue University | Dada M.,Johns Hopkins Carey Business School
Operations Research | Year: 2011

We consider a system in which an order is placed every T periods to bring the inventory position up to the base stock S. We accept demand until the inventory position reaches a sales rejection threshold M. Our objective is to find the optimal values of S and M that minimize the long-run average cost per period. We establish the stationary distribution of our system and develop structural properties of the optimal solution that facilitate computation. In particular, we show that in an optimal solution, the optimal value of M is nonnegative under some reasonable conditions. Hence, in our model a mixture of backorders and lost sales may occur. Additionally, we compare our system against traditional systems in which demand during stockouts is either fully backordered or lost. © 2011 INFORMS. Source


Lee S.B.,Johns Hopkins Carey Business School
Health and Human Rights | Year: 2010

The past several years have seen an evolution in the obligations of pharmaceutical companies conducting clinical trials abroad. Key players, such as international human rights organizations, multinational pharmaceutical companies, the United States government and courts, and the media, have played a significant role in defining these obligations. This article examines how such obligations have developed through the lens of past, present, and future recommendations for informed consent protections. In doing so, this article suggests that, no matter how robust obligations appear, they will continue to fall short of providing meaningful protection until they are accompanied by a substantive enforcement mechanism that holds multinational pharmaceutical companies accountable for their conduct. Issues of national sovereignty, particularly in the United States, will continue to prevent meaningful enforcement by an international tribunal or through one universally adopted code of ethics. This article argues that, rather than continuing to pursue an untenable international approach, the Alien Torts Statute (ATS) offers a viable enforcement mechanism, at least for US-based pharmaceutical companies. Recent federal appellate court precedent interpreting the ATS provides the mechanism for granting victims redress and enforcing accountability of sponsors (usually pharmaceutical companies and research and academic institutions) for informed consent misconduct. Substantive human rights protections are vital in order to ensure that every person can realize the "right to health." This article concludes that by building on the federal appellate court's ATS analysis, which grants foreign trial participants the right to pursue claims of human rights violations in US courts, a mechanism can be created for enforcing not only substantive informed consent, but also human rights protections. © 2010 Lee. Source


Wang R.,Johns Hopkins Carey Business School
Operations Research Letters | Year: 2016

We study the so-called sum-product ratio problem, under which the numerator is the sum of numbers in a subset and the denominator is the product of numbers in the same subset. Unlike the sum-sum ratio problem, which corresponds to the assortment problem under the multinomial logit model, the sum-product ratio problem is generally NP-complete. We develop a fully polynomial-time approximation scheme and discuss several potential applications and useful extensions. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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