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Barinka C.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Rojas C.,Johns Hopkins Brain Science Institute | Slusher B.,Johns Hopkins Brain Science Institute | Pomper M.,Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) is a membrane-bound binuclear zinc metallopeptidase with the highest expression levels found in the nervous and prostatic tissue. Throughout the nervous system, glia-bound GCPII is intimately involved in the neuronneuron and neuron-glia signaling via the hydrolysis of N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), the most abundant mammalian peptidic neurotransmitter. The inhibition of the GCPII-controlled NAAG catabolism has been shown to attenuate neurotoxicity associated with enhanced glutamate transmission and GCPII-specific inhibitors demonstrate efficacy in multiple preclinical models including traumatic brain injury, stroke, neuropathic and inflammatory pain, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and schizophrenia. The second major area of pharmacological interventions targeting GCPII focuses on prostate carcinoma; GCPII expression levels are highly increased in androgenindependent and metastatic disease. Consequently, the enzyme serves as a potential target for imaging and therapy. This review offers a summary of GCPII structure, physiological functions in healthy tissues, and its association with various pathologies. The review also outlines the development of GCPII-specific small-molecule compounds and their use in preclinical and clinical settings. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.


Dixon S.J.,Columbia University | Dixon S.J.,Stanford University | Patel D.,Columbia University | Welsch M.,Columbia University | And 9 more authors.
eLife | Year: 2014

Exchange of extracellular cystine for intracellular glutamate by the antiporter system Xc - is implicated in numerous pathologies. Pharmacological agents that inhibit system Xc - activity have long been sought, but have remained elusive. Here, we report that the small molecule erastin is a potent, selective inhibitor of system Xc -. RNA sequencing revealed that inhibition of cystine-glutamate exchange leads to activation of an ER stress response and upregulation of CHAC1, providing a pharmacodynamic marker for system Xc - inhibition. We also found that the clinically approved anti-cancer drug sorafenib, but not other kinase inhibitors, inhibits system Xc - function and can trigger ER stress and ferroptosis. In an analysis of hospital records and adverse event reports, we found that patients treated with sorafenib exhibited unique metabolic and phenotypic alterations compared to patients treated with other kinase-inhibiting drugs. Finally, using a genetic approach, we identified new genes dramatically upregulated in cells resistant to ferroptosis.


Wozniak K.M.,Johns Hopkins Brain Science Institute | Nomoto K.,Eisai Inc | Lapidus R.G.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Wu Y.,Johns Hopkins Brain Science Institute | And 7 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2011

Chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity is a significant problem associated with successful treatment of many cancers. Tubulin is a well-established target of antineoplastic therapy; however, tubulin-targeting agents, such as paclitaxel and the newer epothilones, induce significant neurotoxicity. Eribulin mesylate, a novel microtubule-targeting analogue of the marine natural product halichondrin B, has recently shown antineoplastic activity, with relatively low incidence and severity of neuropathy, in metastatic breast cancer patients. The mechanism of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy is not well understood. One of the main underlying reasons is incomplete characterization of pathology of peripheral nerves from treated subjects, either from patients or preclinically from animals. The current study was conducted to directly compare, in mice, the neuropathy-inducing propensity of three drugs: paclitaxel, ixabepilone, and eribulin mesylate. Because these drugs have different potencies and pharmacokinetics, we compared them on the basis of a maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Effects of each drug on caudal and digital nerve conduction velocity, nerve amplitude, and sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglion morphology at 0.25 x MTD, 0.5 x MTD, 0.75 x MTD, and MTD were compared. Paclitaxel and ixabepilone, at their respective MTDs, produced significant deficits in caudal nerve conduction velocity, caudal amplitude and digital nerve amplitudes, as well as moderate to severe degenerative pathologic changes in dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerve. In contrast, eribulin mesylate produced no significant deleterious effects on any nerve conduction parameter measured and caused milder, less frequent effects on morphology. Overall, our findings indicate that eribulin mesylate induces less neuropathy in mice than paclitaxel or ixabepilone at equivalent MTD-based doses. ©2011 AACR.

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