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Tharakan R.,Johns Hopkins Bayview Proteomics Center | Edwards N.,Georgetown University | Graham D.R.M.,Johns Hopkins Bayview Proteomics Center | Graham D.R.M.,Johns Hopkins University

With the proliferation of search engines for the analysis of MS data, multisearch techniques aimed at boosting the discriminating power of the search engines' score functions have recently become popular. Much statistical and algorithmic work has been done, therefore, in order to be able to combine and parse multiple search streams. However, multisearch techniques suffer from long run times, and may have little impact on false negatives because of similar peptide filtering heuristics between searches. This review focuses, rather, on multipass techniques, which use the results of one search to guide the selection of spectra, parameters and sequences in subsequent searches. This reduces the number of false-negative peptide identifications due to peptide candidate filtering while preserving statistical significance of existing (correct) identifi-cations. Furthermore, this technique avoids substantial increases in running time and, by limiting the search space, does not reduce the statistical significance of correct identifications or introduce a statistically significant number of false-positive identifications. However, we argue that the existing combiner tools are not reliably applicable to these multipass situations, because of algorithmic assumptions about search space and statistical assumptions about the rate of true positives. Here we provide an overview of the advantages of and issues in multipass analysis techniques, the existing methods and workflows available to proteomic researchers, and the unsolved statistical and algorithmic issues amenable to future research. Source

Drewes J.L.,Johns Hopkins University | Szeto G.L.,Johns Hopkins University | Szeto G.L.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Engle E.L.,Johns Hopkins University | And 5 more authors.

HIV immune pathogenesis is postulated to involve two major mechanisms: 1) chronic innate immune responses that drive T cell activation and apoptosis and 2) induction of immune regulators that suppress T cell function and proliferation. Both arms are elevated chronically in lymphoid tissues of non-natural hosts, which ultimately develop AIDS. However, these mechanisms are not elevated chronically in natural hosts of SIV infection that avert immune pathogenesis despite similarly high viral loads. In this study we investigated whether minocycline could modulate these pathogenic antiviral responses in non-natural hosts of HIV and SIV. We found that minocycline attenuated in vitro induction of type I interferon (IFN) and the IFN-stimulated genes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) and TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells and PBMCs exposed to aldrithiol-2 inactivated HIV or infectious influenza virus. Activationinduced TRAIL and expression of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) in isolated CD4+ T cells were also reduced by minocycline. Translation of these in vitro findings to in vivo effects, however, were mixed as minocycline significantly reduced markers of activation and activation-induced cell death (CD25, Fas, caspase-3) but did not affect expression of IFNb or the IFN-stimulated genes IDO1, FasL, or Mx in the spleens of chronically SIV-infected pigtailed macaques. TRAIL expression, reflecting the mixed effects of minocycline on activation and type I IFN stimuli, was reduced by half, but this change was not significant. These results show that minocycline administered after infection may protect against aspects of activation-induced cell death during HIV/SIV immune disease, but that in vitro effects of minocycline on type I IFN responses are not recapitulated in a rapid progressor model in vivo. Source

Stastna M.,Johns Hopkins Bayview Proteomics Center | Stastna M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Van Eyk J.E.,Johns Hopkins Bayview Proteomics Research Center
Methods in Molecular Biology

In the past, various studies using different methods have been carried out to analyze proteins secreted by cells. There are several crucial steps that have to be followed to ensure successful secreted proteome detection and identification. Simultaneously with the optimization of the experimental conditions for various cell type culturing and subsequent cell conditioning to obtain conditioned medium with secreted proteins in vitro, the analytical separation methods for fractionation of complex protein mixture and mass spectrometry for protein identification are of high importance. The separation methods primarily used are either gel-based (e.g., 1-DE and 2-DE) or gel-free methods (e.g., liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis). Here we outline an optimized protocol for the preparation and analysis of conditioned medium containing proteins secreted by neonatal cardiac myocytes by using reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) followed by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Although optimized for neonatal cardiac myocytes, the general steps described in the following chapter can be adapted to other cell types as well. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013. Source

Agnetti G.,Johns Hopkins Bayview Proteomics Center | Agnetti G.,University of Bologna | Kaludercic N.,University of Bologna | Kane L.A.,Johns Hopkins Bayview Proteomics Center | And 11 more authors.
Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics

Background-Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves chamber mechanoenergetics and morbidity and mortality of patients manifesting heart failure with ventricular dyssynchrony; however, little is known about the molecular changes underlying CRT benefits. We hypothesized that mitochondria may play an important role because of their involvement in energy production. Methods and Results-Mitochondria isolated from the left ventricle in a canine model of dyssynchronous or resynchronized (CRT) heart failure were analyzed by a classical, gel-based, proteomic approach. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that 31 mitochondrial proteins where changed when controlling the false discovery rate at 30%. Key enzymes in anaplerotic pathways, such as pyruvate carboxylation and branched-chain amino acid oxidation, were increased. These concerted changes, along with others, suggested that CRT may increase the pool of Krebs cycle intermediates and fuel oxidative phosphorylation. Nearly 50% of observed changes pertained to subunits of the respiratory chain. ATP synthase-β subunit of complex V was less degraded, and its phosphorylation modulated by CRT was associated with increased formation (2-fold, P=0.004) and specific activity (+20%, P=0.05) of the mature complex. The importance of these modifications was supported by coordinated changes in mitochondrial chaperones and proteases. CRT increased the mitochondrial respiratory control index with tightened coupling when isolated mitochondria were reexposed to substrates for both complex I (glutamate and malate) and complex II (succinate), an effect likely related to ATP synthase subunit modifications and complex quantity and activity. Conclusions-CRT potently affects both the mitochondrial proteome and the performance associated with improved cardiac function. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

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