Markert S.E.,Johns Hopkins
Orthopaedic Nursing | Year: 2011
There is limited data and research on the effects of cryotherapy on total knee replacements. Eleven studies, including one meta-analysis, have been reviewed on the effects continuous cold flow therapy has on blood loss, pain, swelling, and range of motion of the operative knee versus an ice bag or the use of traditional narcotics. Six of the studies showed significantly lower pain scores in the cold compression group than in a control group, including epidural analgesia, Robert Jones bandage, narcotic administration, and crushed ice. Overall, most studies noted no difference in range of motion of the operative knee, a decrease in swelling, and a decrease in blood loss with the cold compression. Although the use of cryotherapy may not be a statistically effective modality, it may, however, provide benefits for patients undergoing a total knee replacement. Copyright © 2011 National Association of Orthopaedic Nurses.
The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) in Laurel, Maryland, USA, has established a center of excellence to guide major advances in additive manufacturing (AM). The center will initially focus on significant technical challenges that are currently preventing more widespread adoption of additive manufacturing technologies in the Defense Department and also on topics of interest to the intelligence community. Other future initiatives will include printed microelectronics and bioprinting. ‘For many years, we have been at the forefront of advanced manufacturing technology,’ said Jim Schatz, who leads APL’s research and exploratory development department. ‘The investments we are making in additive manufacturing will place us among the leaders in this area nationally, and allow us to rapidly develop and deliver game-changing capabilities to our government sponsors.’ The lab plans to invest in additional powder bed fusion and hybrid additive-subtractive systems. The center will engage in the following activities: This story uses material from Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.
News Article | January 18, 2016
The third Monday of January is known as Blue Monday—the most depressing day of the year. It’s when New Year resolutions die, holiday credit card bills start to show up in the mail, and winter is in full force, with many more weeks of it on the horizon. But is it real? "[Blue Monday] was postulated by a man named Cliff Arnall in 2005, after adding together different variables and coming up with the idea that the third Monday in January is the most depressing day of the year," says Larry Shushansky, a Rhode Island-based therapist. "I have not seen any real scientific research that bears this out." Shushansky says the issue of sadness is much more complicated than identifying a specific day of the year. Feeling down can be due to factors such as not getting enough sleep, lack of exercise, poor diet, dysfunctional relationships, and general stress. These can add up and cause "the worst day of the year," he says. Morgan Johnson, research director for the Monday Campaigns, a nonprofit public health initiative associated with Johns Hopkins, Columbia, and Syracuse universities, says Monday can actually be the healthiest day of the week. In a study published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Johnson and her colleagues looked at health information-seeking behaviors on Google and found that there is a surge in query volume on Mondays. "People see Monday as a fresh start and a day to get their act together," she says. "Monday helps people get back on track with health goals that they’ve set for themselves. It’s a cue that comes around every week, kind of like a mini New Year’s." Whether you’re feeling down or optimistic on Blue Monday or any other day of the week, there are some things you can do to beat the blues and stay positive: Look at your lifestyle objectively and see if there are obvious changes you can make, says Shushansky. "See yourself as you are in your relationships and make changes in the way you relate so you can have the kind of relationships that add to your well-being," he says. Most people start to lose steam on their New Year’s resolution after three weeks. Use Blue Monday to recharge and keep going, says Kelley Kitley, a Chicago-based therapist. "The best way to work through it is to set short-term tangible goals on this day to accomplish for the end of the month," she says. "Keep it simple; choose one or two and write down something you can do daily to create a new habit." Whether it’s sticking to a diet or exercise routine, quitting smoking or another health goal, Monday is the day to state your goals for yourself, says Johnson. Also use Monday as a day to plan ahead. "How will you fit your healthy activities into your busy schedule? What kinds of barriers or triggers to bad behavior should you watch out for and make a plan to avoid?" asks Johnson. "Making a plan is a great way to make those behavior changes stick." This doesn't have to be big, says Shushansky; it can be as simple as taking a five-minute walk a day, or go out to somewhere you would not normally go out to. Getting out of a rut takes a change in scenery. It can feel overwhelming when they all come in at once, says Kitley. "Typically in December, people go outside of their projected budget due to the holidays," she says. "Make a goal to set aside X amount of money per week to make it feel more manageable." People will often withdraw from work, family, recreation . . . all the things that can actually help, says Michael Boman, a Utah-based therapist. "Make sure to connect," he says. "Reach out to people. Focus on work. Stay healthily busy." Too many people wait until March or April to get outdoors, says Boman. "Winters can be long and very cold," he says. "I snowshoe and hike, and that absolutely makes January doable. Get up. Get out. Get going."
News Article | September 1, 2016
Neurons are for life, as are diseases and injuries that destroy them. That's the painful truth for people who lose their vision to diseases like macular degeneration or glaucoma, which destroy the retina—the image sensor of the eye—or the optic nerve that connects eyes to the brain. But some laws of human health were made to be broken, and that may soon be true for the law of irreversible nerve damage. The U.S. government's National Eye Institute said today that it will put up $12.4 million to fund six studies on technologies that can regenerate damaged eyes. Blindness is curable in cases such as cataracts. Less than an hour of surgery can swap the eye's clouded-over lenses with clear synthetic replacements. Damage to the back of the eye, though, is generally forever. Among the causes are macular degeneration, which destroys the retina, especially in older people; and glaucoma, a buildup of fluid pressure that crushes the optic nerve. Rare genetic diseases like retinitis pigmentosa can also wipe out vision. But unlike humans, some animals can regrow neurons and rebuild broken eyes. If researchers can coax the same process in humans, they might be able to reverse not only blindness but also diseases of the brain and other nerves. The NEI is funding research to do just that in three-year research projects at nearly a dozen institutions. Best-case scenario: These projects develop treatments for blind mice. Trials in humans would come later. Vanderbilt University, for instance, is trying to coax support cells in the retina called Muller glia to transform into replacements for dead photoreceptors, the neurons that actually convert light into signals for the brain. This already happens in zebrafish, the poster child for animals that can regenerate nerves. Drugs and genetic manipulation might cause the same things to happen in our rodent cousins—and eventually in us. Another project will try to solve the key problem with stem cell treatments. It's already possible to turn a stem cell into a replacement photoreceptor, but it doesn’t connect to the rest of the eye. Johns Hopkins and University of Wisconsin researchers will experiment with molecules and genes that might coax these cells to wire themselves into the retina. Teams at Stanford, Harvard, and the Scripps Research Institute, meanwhile, will look for genes and proteins that regenerate the retinal ganglion cells' axons, the wires that form the optic nerve. All six projects are detailed on the NEI website. "Understanding factors that mediate the regeneration of neurons and the growth of axons is crucial for the development of breakthrough therapies for blinding diseases," says NEI director Dr. Paul Sieving in a press release. "What we learn through these projects will have a health impact beyond vision."
Space silence The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) lost contact with its flagship X-ray astronomical satellite, Hitomi — previously known as ASTRO-H — on 26 March. Launched on 17 February, it had been going through initial tests and calibrations. Hitomi’s status remains unknown, but JAXA engineers are working to regain communication. The US Joint Space Operations Center, which tracks space debris, reported five objects near the spacecraft around the time that it went silent, which it characterized as pieces of a “break-up”. On 28 March, unconfirmed reports said that telescopes had seen the satellite tumbling. See go.nature.com/jlkhvg for more. Hydrogen on Ceres The northern polar region of the dwarf planet Ceres contains lots of hydrogen and probably water, as revealed in an image taken by NASA’s Dawn spacecraft and released on 22 March. Dawn scientists compiled this false-colour map using data from the spacecraft’s neutron-counting instrument, which scans the uppermost metre of Ceres’s surface material. Red indicates high neutron counts, and blue shows low counts. Fewer neutrons near the north pole indicate the presence of hydrogen there, probably in the form of water ice. Japan’s whaling Japan’s Institute for Cetacean Research has confirmed that 333 minke whales were killed by the country’s controversial ‘scientific’ whaling initiative in the Antarctic, which started last year. In a 24 March statement, the institute said that 103 males and 230 females — many of which were pregnant — were caught between December last year and March. In 2014, an international court declared that Japan’s whaling programme was not scientific, and the country has struggled to convince the International Whaling Commission to approve a revised programme (see A. S. Brierley and P. J. Clapham Nature 529, 283; 2016; J. Morishita Nature 531, 35; 2016). Philippines satellite The Philippines’s first micro-satellite was successfully launched on 22 March from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The craft, Diwata-1 — a collaboration between the University of the Philippines Diliman, the Phillipine Department of Science and Technology and Japan’s Tohoku and Hokkaido universities — is part of a resupply mission to the International Space Station, from where it will be placed into orbit. The satellite will beam back images of weather patterns and land and water resources, and represents “a giant leap for Philippine science and technology”, said Jose Cuisia, the country’s US ambassador. Frontier science Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen has pledged US$100 million over 10 years to transformative bioscience projects and investigators. The first grants from the Paul G. Allen Frontiers Group in Seattle, Washington, were announced on 23 March. Four scientists will receive $1.5 million each: Ethan Bier at the University of California, San Diego; James Collins at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge; Jennifer Doudna at the University of California, Berkeley; and Bassem Hassan at the Brain and Spine Institute, Paris. Two universities, Stanford in California and Tufts in Medford, Massachusetts, will each receive $30 million, from the Allen group and partners, over 8 years. Competitions for additional investigators and research centres will be held periodically. Russian funding Concerns have been raised over future support for civilian basic research under a science and technology strategy that the Russian government plans to launch this year. Despite mounting budget pressure, the government’s overall spending on military and civilian science is to remain stable, deputy prime minister Arkady Dvorkovich told the Russian Academy of Sciences last week. But scientists told Nature that they fear that priority research programmes set to be introduced by the end of the year will favour commercial research over fundamental science. Recipients of Russian grants have already lost substantial purchasing power owing to the rapid decline of the rouble. Fetal research A US Congress committee is preparing to subpoena 17 universities and research institutions for data on their use of human tissue from aborted fetuses, according to media reports on 24 March. This is the second round of subpoenas from the House Select Investigative Panel on Infant Lives, which was created in October 2015 to investigate allegations that reproductive health-care provider Planned Parenthood was illegally selling fetal tissue to researchers — charges that the non-profit group denies. The committee’s chair, Representative Marsha Blackburn (Republican, Tennessee), is seeking the names of researchers who work with fetal cells and tissue. Canadian science Canada’s government will boost funding for science and technology, finance minister Bill Morneau announced on 22 March. Science-granting agencies will receive an extra Can$76 million (US$58 million) annually from the 2016–17 fiscal year, plus Can$19 million for indirect costs at academic institutions that undertake federally sponsored research. The government also plans to spend up to Can$2 billion over 3 years on a new science infrastructure, and Can$800 million over 4 years on a series of “innovation networks and clusters” that aim to foster research and development ties with the private sector. Intel icon dies Andrew Grove, the legendary chairman and chief executive of semiconductor giant Intel, died on 21 March aged 79, the company has announced. Grove (pictured) was the first engineer to be hired by Intel’s founders in 1968. He later had a crucial role in management as the company, based in Santa Clara, California, drove down the cost of computer chips and boosted their power, both at an exponential rate. Born into a Jewish family in Hungary, Grove survived the Holocaust; in the mid-1950s, he escaped through the Iron Curtain and emigrated to the United States. Macchiarini affair The Karolinska Institute announced on 23 March that it has rescinded its contract with controversial surgeon Paolo Macchiarini. Macchiarini, formerly a visiting professor at the institute in Stockholm, had been internationally fêted for his pioneering transplants of artificial windpipes — but allegations of scientific and ethical misconduct began to emerge almost two years ago. The institute’s disciplinary board now says that he “engaged in conduct and research that is incompatible with a position of employment”. Macchiarini says that he rejects the board’s findings. See go.nature.com/qqeiqk for more. Asymmetry pegged The LHCb experiment at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, has improved the accuracy of a crucial measurement of the difference in behaviour between matter and antimatter. At a meeting in La Thuile, Italy, physicist Matthew Kenzie of CERN, Europe’s particle-physics lab, reported on 23 March that one indicator of asymmetry — called γ and measured through the decay of B mesons and their antiparticles — in the behaviour of quarks had been determined with a precision of about 10%, twice that of previous experiments. One of three angles of a triangle, γ encodes the asymmetries in quark behaviour; LHCb physicists hope to measure all three angles with a precision that is better than 1%. Solo observatories Two US radioastronomy observatories will branch out on their own following a funding crunch, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, Virginia, announced on 24 March. The Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia will become the independent Green Bank Observatory, and the Very Long Baseline Array — a set of ten dishes stretching from Hawaii to the US Virgin Islands — will be the Long Baseline Observatory. The changes come as the US National Science Foundation, which funds the NRAO, looks to save money by offloading some of its astronomy facilities. Call for drug reform Drug policy needs to be shorn of ideological bias and based on better science, according to the Johns Hopkins–Lancet Commission on Public Health and International Drug Policy. In a 24 March report, the group calls for decriminalization of minor drug offences including use and possession, regulated drug markets and a focus on harm reduction rather than prevention of use (J. Csete et al. Lancet http://doi.org/bdp2; 2016). The commission also says that current global policies are causing huge health problems, and that a more diverse source of funders is needed to provide “non-ideological” science on drug policy and reform. Global investments in renewable energy rose to a record US$286 billion in 2015, more than double the investment in coal and gas-fired power generation, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) announced on 24 March. The world added 134 gigawatts of renewable-energy capacity in 2015 — up 26% from 2014. Most investment went into solar and wind power. For the first time, UNEP reported, investments by developing countries surpassed those of developed countries. 31 March–1 April US President Barack Obama hosts the last of four summits on nuclear security in Washington DC. go.nature.com/4fq3gj 1–2 April Robotics experts gather in Coral Gables, Florida, to wrestle with the legal and policy questions surrounding robots. go.nature.com/sc4fuc 6–7 April The Astroparticle Physics European Consortium holds a meeting in Paris to discuss updating its global-initiatives road map. app2016.in2p3.fr