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Van Hoesel A.Q.,John Wayne Cancer Institute JWCI | Van Hoesel A.Q.,Leiden University | Van De Velde C.J.H.,Leiden University | Kuppen P.J.K.,Leiden University | And 5 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2012

Breast cancer patients with similar clinical stage may experience different disease outcomes. Aberrant DNA methylation of primary breast tumors can have impact on the clinical outcome. This study aimed to assess clinical utility of tumor-specific methylated sequences (MINT17, 31) and tumor-related gene (RARβ2) methylation classification in primary breast tumors. Absolute quantitative assessment of methylated alleles (AQAMA) was used to determine the methylation index (MI) of MINT17, MINT31, and RAR2 in 242 primary tumors of early stage breast cancer patients. Patients were classified into three methylation groups: meth-N, with normal methylation levels of all biomarkers; meth-L, with one biomarker hypermethylation; and meth-H, with hypermethylation of >1 biomarker. Disease outcome of methylation groups was compared during follow-up. MI of all biomarkers was successfully obtained in 237 tumors of which 79 (33%) were classified as meth-N, 86 (36%) as meth-L, and 72 (30%) as meth-H. Meth-H status was a risk factor for distant recurrence (DR) (log-rank P = 0.007) and shorter disease-free survival (DFS) (log-rank P = 0.039). Methylation classification had strongest prognostic value for patients with ER-negative tumors. In multivariate analysis (n = 222), ER-negative meth-H patients had a 4.1-fold increased risk of DR (95% CI 1.80-9.59; meth-N HR 1.0, P = 0.001), a 4.2-fold increased risk of overall recurrence (OR) (95% CI 1.88-9.47; meth-N HR 1.0, P = 0.001), and a 3.1-fold shorter DFS (95% CI 1.57-5.98; meth-N HR 1.0, P = 0.003). Methylation classification of primary breast cancer is an independent prognostic factor for disease outcome in patients with ER-negative tumors. The study's findings will have to be confirmed in an independent dataset. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Marzese D.M.,John Wayne Cancer Institute JWCI | Scolyer R.A.,Royal Prince Alfred Hospital | Scolyer R.A.,University of Sydney | Scolyer R.A.,Melanoma Institute Australia | And 19 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2014

Melanoma brain metastasis (MBM) represents a frequent complication of cutaneous melanoma. Despite aggressive multi-modality therapy, patients with MBM often have a survival rate of <1 year. Alteration in DNA methylation is amajor hallmark of tumor progression and metastasis; however, it remains largely unexplored inMBM. In this study, we generated a comprehensive DNA methylation landscape through the use of genome-wide copy number, DNA methylation and gene expression data integrative analysis of melanoma progression to MBM. A progressive genome-wide demethylation in low CpG density and an increase in methylation level of CpG islands according to melanoma progression were observed. MBM-specific partially methylated domains (PMDs) affecting key brain developmental processes were identified. Differentially methylated CpG sites between MBM and lymph node metastasis (LNM) from patients with good prognosis were identified. Among the most significantly affected genes were the HOX familymembers. DNA methylation of HOXD9 gene promoter affected transcript and protein expression and was significantly higher inMBMthan that in early stages.AMBMspecificPMDwas identified in this region.Lowmethylation level of this regionwasassociated with activeHOXD9 expression, open chromatin and histone modifications associated with active transcription. Demethylating agent induced HOXD9 expression in melanoma cell lines. The clinical relevance of this finding was verified in an independent large cohort of melanomas (n 5 145). Patients with HOXD9 hypermethylation in LNM had poorer disease-free and overall survival. This epigenome-wide study identified novel methylated genes with functional and clinical implications for MBM patients. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source


Van Hoesel A.Q.,John Wayne Cancer Institute JWCI | Van Hoesel A.Q.,Leiden University | Van De Velde C.J.H.,Leiden University | Kuppen P.J.K.,Leiden University | And 10 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2012

Long interspersed element 1 (LINE-1), a noncoding genomic repeat sequence, methylation status can influence tumor progression. In this study, the clinical significance of LINE-1 methylation status was assessed in primary breast cancer in young versus old breast cancer patients. LINE-1 methylation index (MI) was assessed by absolute quantitative assessment of methylated alleles (AQAMA) PCR assay. Initially, LINE-1 MI was assessed in a preliminary study of 235 tissues representing different stages of ductal breast cancer development. Next, an independent cohort of 379 primary ductal breast cancer patients (median follow-up 18.9 years) was studied. LINE-1 hypomethylation was shown to occur in DCIS and invasive breast cancer. In primary breast cancer it was associated with pathological tumor stage (p = 0.026), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.022), and higher age at diagnosis ([55, p\ 0.001). In multivariate analysis, LINE-1 hypomethylation was associated with decreased OS (HR 2.19, 95 % CI 1.17-4.09, log-rank p = 0.014), DFS (HR 2.05, 95 % CI 1.14-3.67, log-rank p = 0.016) and increased DR (HR 2.83, 95 % CI 1.53-5.21, log-rank p = 0.001) in younger (≤55 years), but not older patients (>55 years). LINE-1 analysis of primary breast cancer demonstrated cancer-related age-dependent hypomethylation. In patients ≤55 years, LINE-1 hypomethylation portends a high-risk of DR. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2012. Source


Marzese D.M.,John Wayne Cancer Institute JWCI | Huynh J.L.,John Wayne Cancer Institute JWCI | Kawas N.P.,John Wayne Cancer Institute JWCI | Hoon D.S.B.,John Wayne Cancer Institute JWCI
Genomics Data | Year: 2014

Melanoma has a high tendency to metastasize to brain tissue. The understanding about the molecular alterations of early-stage melanoma progression to brain metastasis (MBM) is very limited. Identifying MBM-specific genomic and epigenomic alterations is a key initial step in understanding its aggressive nature and identifying specific novel druggable targets. Here, we describe a multi-platform dataset generated with different stages of melanoma progression to MBM. This data includes genome-wide DNA methylation (Illumina HM450K BeadChip), gene expression (Affymetrix HuEx 1.0 ST array), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variation (CNV; Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array) analyses of melanocyte cells (MNCs), primary melanoma tumors (PRMs), lymph node metastases (LNMs) and MBMs. The analysis of this data has been reported in our recently published study (Marzese et al., 2014). © 2014. Source


Wang J.,John Wayne Cancer Institute JWCI | Hua W.,Fudan University | Huang S.K.,John Wayne Cancer Institute JWCI | Fan K.,Fudan University | And 3 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2015

Our group previously demonstrated that the RASSF1 gene has a significant tumor suppressor role in cutaneous melanoma. The RASSF8 gene is a member of the N-terminal RASSF gene family. Previously, we identified RASSF8 (HOJ1, NCBI Gene ID:11228) expression in cutaneous melanoma; however the functional role of RASSF8 in melanoma is not known. RASSF8 expression was assessed in melanoma cell lines and tumors of different AJCC stages. Results indicated that RASSF8 expression was low in metastatic melanoma lines and decreased with melanoma progression. We then explored the mechanism of RASSF8 downregulation in melanoma by assessing methylation of RASSF8 and demonstrated that methylation of RASSF8 gene promoter was higher in advanced than in early stages melanomas. Functional activity of RASSF8 in melanoma lines by knockdown and overexpression of RASSF8 demonstrated that RASSF8 expression significantly inhibited cell growth, cell migration and invasion, whereas knockdown of RASSF8 expression significantly increased cell growth, cell migration and invasion of melanoma cells by increasing expression of P65 and its downstream target IL-6. Moreover RASSF8 was found to induce apoptosis in melanoma cells by activating the P53-P21 pathway, and also in vivo studies demonstrated that inhibiting RASSF8 increases the tumorigenic properties of human melanoma xenografts. These results suggest that RASSF8 plays a significant role in suppressing the progression of cutaneous melanoma. Source

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