John Thompson and Sons Ltd.

Belfast, United Kingdom

John Thompson and Sons Ltd.

Belfast, United Kingdom
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Ball M.E.E.,Large Park Co. | Magowan E.,Large Park Co. | McCracken K.J.,Co. Down BT24 8DP | Beattie V.E.,Devenish Nutrition Ltd. | And 3 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2015

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of feed form (meal or pellets) and dietary particle size profile (fine or coarse) in a 2×2 factorial design on finishing pig performance and nutrient digestibility. A simple cereal soya-based finishing pig diet was formulated to provide 13.6. MJ/kg digestible energy (DE) and 167. g/kg crude protein (CP). The coarsely ground diets were made using 2×14. mm+4×10. mm screens and 6×4. mm screens were used to produce the finely ground diets. Diets were then pelleted or not. The effect of feed form and particle size was tested on pig performance (20 pigs per pen, 8 replicates per treatment) and nutrient digestibility (8 pigs/replicates per treatment) in two separate trials. Data were analysed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using Genstat Version 14.0 according to the 2×2 factorial design. There was no significant interaction (P>0.05) between particle size and feed form. However, the ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of pigs between 18 weeks of age and finish was significantly improved (P<0.05 and<0.001, respectively) when diets were in pellet form (990. g/day and 2.79, respectively) compared with when diets were in meal form (940. g/day and 3.01, respectively). Pigs offered the finely ground diets also had a higher ADG (989. g/day, P<0.05) (between 18 weeks and finish) and a better FCR (2.82, P<0.01) than pigs offered coarsely ground diets (941. g/day and 2.98, respectively). Overall FCR between 12 weeks of age and finish was improved by 5.5% when diets were pelleted (P<0.001) and by 3% when diets were finely ground (P<0.05). Pelleting of the diet significantly improved dry matter (DM) digestibility and DE content (both P<0.05) and tended (P<0.1) to improve energy digestibility and ash digestibility. Reducing the particle size of the diet significantly improved CP digestibility (P<0.05) and tended (P<0.1) to improve DM, energy digestibility and digestible energy content. Nitrogen excretion was reduced (P<0.05) by 10% when pigs were offered diets in pellet form compared to meal form. There was no effect of feed form or particle size (P>0.05) on stomach ulceration. Overall, the results suggest a cumulative effect of feed form and particle size on FCR, nutrient digestibility and DE content of the diet since these parameters were optimized when pigs were offered a pelleted diet with a fine particle size profile but were poorest when meal diets with a coarse particle size profile were offered. © 2015.


Magowan E.,Hillsborough Co. | Ball M.E.E.,Hillsborough Co. | Ball M.E.E.,Queen's University of Belfast | McCracken K.J.,Queen's University of Belfast | And 7 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2011

This study aimed to improve lifetime pig performance and reduce variation in growth rate between pigs using managerial and nutritional practices. The experiment (2 × 2 × 2 factorial) compared uniform and mixed weight grouping (SD of weight in group at weaning 0.7. kg and 1.6. kg respectively), offering pigs a high (12. kg) or low (6. kg) allowance of starter diets post weaning and either a special (DE 14.5. MJ/kg, total lysine 11. g/kg) or normal (DE 13.5. MJ/kg, total lysine 9.5. g/kg) finishing diet. Over six time replicates, 960 pigs (Landrace × Large White) were randomly allocated at weaning (28 ± 2. days of age) into groups of 20 according to weight and sex and these groups were split at 10. weeks of age (transfer to finishing accommodation) into two groups of 10. Finishing diet was offered from 11. weeks of age. The FCR of pigs (wean-7. weeks of age) was significantly (P < 0.001) improved when a high allowance of starter diets was offered (1.25) compared with a low allowance (1.34). However, between 7 and 10. weeks of age a high allowance of starter diets only improved the FCR of pigs in uniform groups. A special finishing diet improved (P < 0.05) the ADG of pigs during finish (11-20. weeks of age) (860. g/day) compared with a normal finishing diet (827. g/day). The coefficient of variation (CV) of weight at 10 and 15. weeks of age was significantly lower (both P < 0.001) for pigs in uniform weight groups compared with that of pigs in mixed weight groups. A three-way interaction was observed on the CV of ADG (weaning-20. weeks of age) (P < 0.05) and FCR (11-20. weeks of age) (P < 0.01). The lowest CV of ADG (weaning-20. weeks of age) and lowest FCR (11-20. weeks of age) were achieved when uniform grouped pigs were offered a high allowance of starter diets post weaning and a special finishing diet (0.117 and 2.43 respectively) whereas the highest values were observed when mixed weight groups of pigs were offered a low allowance of starter diets post weaning and a normal finishing diet (0.162 and 2.70 respectively). In conclusion, although uniform grouping appears to aid the reduction in slaughter weight variation and improve FCR, its effect is dependent on dietary regime. Overall, from weaning to 20. weeks of age, uniformly grouped pigs offered a high allowance of starter diets post weaning and a special finishing diet had a low CV of ADG and the most efficient FCR. © 2010.


Magowan E.,Hillsborough Co. | Ball M.E.E.,Hillsborough Co. | Ball M.E.E.,Queen's University of Belfast | McCracken K.J.,Queen's University of Belfast | And 7 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2011

In a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial design, this study aimed to compare the lifetime performance of light (average of 7.1. kg), medium (average of 8.9. kg) or heavy (average of 10.4. kg) wean weight pigs when offered either a high (12. kg/pig) or low (6. kg/pig) allowance of starter diets post weaning and either a normal (DE 13.5. MJ/kg, total lysine 9.5. g/kg) or special (DE 14.5. MJ/kg, and total lysine 11. g/kg) finishing diet from 11. weeks of age. Over six time replicates, 720 pigs (Landrace × Large White) were randomly allocated at weaning (28 ± 2. days of age), into groups of 20 which were balanced for sex. These groups were split into two groups of ten at 10. weeks of age (transferred to finishing accommodation). The 20-week weight (88.9. kg), ADG (702. g/day) and ADFI (1841. g/day) between wean and 20. weeks of age was greater for heavy weight pigs (P< 0.001) than for light weight pigs (82.2. kg, 692 and 1715. g/day respectively). However, on a per kg of body weight basis the feed intake/kg (P<0.01, 39. g/day/kg) and growth rate/kg (P<0.001, 14.8. g/day/kg) of light weight pigs was greater than that of heavy weight pigs (37.4 and 14.4. g/day/kg respectively). A high allowance of starter diets increased 10-week weight (P< 0.01), ADG (P< 0.01) and reduced ADFI (P< 0.05) and FCR (P< 0.001) between weaning and 10. weeks of age compared with that of pigs offered a low allowance. There were significant interactions between starter diet allowance and finishing diet on finishing pig performance. The 20-week weight and ADG (11 to 20. weeks) of pigs offered a high allowance of starter diets increased (P<0.01 and < 0.05 respectively) when they were offered a special finishing diet compared with a normal finishing diet. However, that of pigs offered a low allowance of starter diets was lowered when they were offered a special finishing diet compared with a normal finishing diet. On the other hand, the ADFI of pigs offered a high allowance of starter diets was similar whether they were offered a normal (1977. g/day) or special (1976. g/day) finishing diet, whereas those offered a low allowance of starter diets had an increased ADFI (P<0.01, 2091. g/day) when offered a normal finishing diet compared with a special finishing diet (1903. g/day). In conclusion, when the 'nutrient density' of the diet changed, in particular towards lower supplies, pig weight and growth rate were poorer. In addition light weight pigs at weaning were found to convert feed as efficiently as heavy weight pigs throughout their lifetime. Furthermore, their lifetime growth rate and feed intake on a 'per kg of body weight' basis was higher than that of heavy pigs. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Ball M.E.E.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland | Ball M.E.E.,Queen's University of Belfast | Magowan E.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland | Beattie V.E.,Devenish Nutrition Ltd. | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences | Year: 2010

Seven experimental diets were formulated: basal diet (A) to which 19 g/kg (B), 38 g/kg (C), 58 g/kg (D) and 76 g/kg (E) vegetable oil blend was added. Diets F and G were barley- and maizebased diets. Study 1 used 14 pigs to determine total tract digestibility and digestible energy (DE) content. The basal diet contained: g/kg: barley 250, wheat 160, maize germ 65, maize gluten 50, maize gluten feed 50, wheat pollard 150, rapeseed 75, soyabean meal 163 and other ingredients 37. Study 2 used 1232 pigs on a performance trial. Digestibility coefficients were higher (PO.001) for the cereal-based diets. Liveweight gain was highest (P<0.05) for pigs offered cereal-based diets but feed conversion efficiency (FCR) was similar compared with values obtained from pigs offered by-product-based diets plus oil. There was a significant (P<0.001) linear effect on FCR but not for DE:gain, with increasing oil addition. In conclusion, supplementation of by-product-based diets with oil increased DE to similar levels as cereal-based diets. However, cereal-based diets resulted in higher levels of DE intake and liveweight gain.


Magowan E.,Hillsborough Co. | McCann M.E.E.,Hillsborough Co. | McCann M.E.E.,Queen's University of Belfast | Beattie V.E.,Devenish Nutrition Ltd. | And 7 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of method of vegetable oil blend application, either sprayed onto (SP) or incorporated within (IN) pelleted diets, on the performance and coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of dietary components in finishing pigs. A secondary aim was to evaluate the source of energy, i.e. starch vs oil on pig performance and the CTTAD. Diets were formulated from either by-products (maize gluten, maize gluten feed, pollards and rapeseed) or cereals (barley and wheat) to which vegetable oil was added (g/kg) in two different ways: 40 (IN) or 30 (SP) + 10 (IN). Two studies were conducted. In study 1, 48 Large White × Landrace pigs (average weight 50.4 kg, SD 3.5 kg) on a research herd were used to determine CTTAD of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), lipid, energy and phosphorus and digestible energy (DE) content. In study 2, 960 Landrace × Large White pigs on a commercial herd, housed in groups of 20 from 14 to 24 weeks of age, were used to assess production performance and carcass characteristics. Oil addition (40IN and 10IN + 30SP) increased the CTTAD of lipid and phosphorus (both P<0.001) and decreased phosphorus excretion (P<0.01) in both by-product-based and wheat/barley-based diets. The total amount of nitrogen excreted also decreased (P<0.05) when oil was added to the wheat/barley-based diets but not the by-product-based diets. The CTTAD, except for lipid CTTAD, and pig performance were similar whether oil was added by 40IN or 10IN + 30 SP. Lipid CTTAD of by-product-based diets increased (P<0.001) when oil was added by 10IN + 30SP compared with 40IN. The addition of oil (40IN and 10IN + 30SP) to by-product-based and wheat/barley-based diets improved the DE content of the diets on a DM basis by on average 0.6 and 0.85 MJ/kg DM, respectively in study 1 (P<0.001) and FCR by on average 0.18 and 0.19 kg/kg, respectively in study 2 (P<0.001). Pigs offered wheat/barley-based diets had higher DM CTTAD (P<0.001) in study 1 and higher growth rates (P<0.001), finish weights (P<0.01) and carcass weights (P<0.001) in study 2 compared with by-product-based diets. The excretion of nitrogen from wheat/barley-based diets was lower (P<0.001) than from by-product-based diets. In conclusion, the performance of pigs was better when they were offered wheat/barley-based diets. Oil addition improved FCR with both wheat/barley-based and by-product-based diets but the method of oil application had no significant effect on pig performance or the CTTAD of the diet. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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