Huang S.S.,University of California at Irvine |
Septimus E.,Hospital Corporation of America |
Septimus E.,Texas A&M University |
Kleinman K.,Harvard University |
And 14 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2013
BACKGROUND: Both targeted decolonization and universal decolonization of patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are candidate strategies to prevent health care-associated infections, particularly those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, cluster-randomized trial. Hospitals were randomly assigned to one of three strategies, with all adult ICUs in a given hospital assigned to the same strategy. Group 1 implemented MRSA screening and isolation; group 2, targeted decolonization (i.e., screening, isolation, and decolonization of MRSA carriers); and group 3, universal decolonization (i.e., no screening, and decolonization of all patients). Proportional-hazards models were used to assess differences in infection reductions across the study groups, with clustering according to hospital. RESULTS: A total of 43 hospitals (including 74 ICUs and 74,256 patients during the intervention period) underwent randomization. In the intervention period versus the baseline period, modeled hazard ratios for MRSA clinical isolates were 0.92 for screening and isolation (crude rate, 3.2 vs. 3.4 isolates per 1000 days), 0.75 for targeted decolonization (3.2 vs. 4.3 isolates per 1000 days), and 0.63 for universal decolonization (2.1 vs. 3.4 isolates per 1000 days) (P = 0.01 for test of all groups being equal). In the intervention versus baseline periods, hazard ratios for bloodstream infection with any pathogen in the three groups were 0.99 (crude rate, 4.1 vs. 4.2 infections per 1000 days), 0.78 (3.7 vs. 4.8 infections per 1000 days), and 0.56 (3.6 vs. 6.1 infections per 1000 days), respectively (P<0.001 for test of all groups being equal). Universal decolonization resulted in a significantly greater reduction in the rate of all bloodstream infections than either targeted decolonization or screening and isolation. One bloodstream infection was prevented per 54 patients who underwent decolonization. The reductions in rates of MRSA bloodstream infection were similar to those of all bloodstream infections, but the difference was not significant. Adverse events, which occurred in 7 patients, were mild and related to chlorhexidine. CONCLUSIONS: In routine ICU practice, universal decolonization was more effective than targeted decolonization or screening and isolation in reducing rates of MRSA clinical isolates and bloodstream infection from any pathogen. Copyright © 2013 Massachusetts Medical Society.
Lee I.,University of Pennsylvania |
Agarwal R.K.,University of Pittsburgh |
Agarwal R.K.,John Stroger Hospital of Cook County |
Lee B.Y.,University of Pennsylvania |
And 2 more authors.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology | Year: 2010
OBJECTIVE. To compare use of chlorhexidine with use of iodine for preoperative skin antisepsis with respect to effectiveness in preventing surgical site infections (SSIs) and cost. METHODS. We searched the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality website, the Cochrane Library, Medline, and EMBASE up to January 2010 for eligible studies. Included studies were systematic reviews, meta-analyses, or randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing preoperative skin antisepsis with chlorhexidine and with iodine and assessing for the outcomes of SSI or positive skin culture result after application. One reviewer extracted data and assessed individual study quality, quality of evidence for each outcome, and publication bias. Meta-analyses were performed using a fixed-effects model. Using results from the meta-analysis and cost data from the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, we developed a decision analytic cost-benefit model to compare the economic value, from the hospital perspective, of antisepsis with iodine versus antisepsis with 2 preparations of chlorhexidine (ie, 4% chlorhexidine bottle and single-use applicators of a 2% chlorhexidine gluconate [CHG] and 70% isopropyl alcohol [IPA] solution), and also performed sensitivity analyses. RESULTS. Nine RCTs with a total of 3,614 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis revealed that chlorhexidine antisepsis was associated with significantly fewer SSIs (adjusted risk ratio, 0.64 [95% confidence interval, [0.51-0.80]) and positive skin culture results (adjusted risk ratio, 0.44 [95% confidence interval, 0.35-0.56]) than was iodine antisepsis. In the cost-benefit model baseline scenario, switching from iodine to chlorhexidine resulted in a net cost savings of $16-$26 per surgical case and $349,904-$568,594 per year for the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Sensitivity analyses showed that net cost savings persisted under most circumstances. CONCLUSIONS. Preoperative skin antisepsis with chlorhexidine is more effective than preoperative skin antisepsis with iodine for preventing SSI and results in cost savings. © 2010 by The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. All rights reserved.
Hosek S.G.,John Stroger Hospital of Cook County |
Siberry G.,Maternal and Pediatric Infectious Disease Branch |
Bell M.,John Stroger Hospital of Cook County |
Lally M.,Brown University |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2013
Background: This study examined the feasibility of a combination prevention intervention for young men who have sex with men (YMSM), an anticipated target population for HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Methods: Project PrEPare, a pilot study using a randomized 3-arm design, compared an efficacious behavioral HIV prevention intervention (Many Men, Many Voices-3 MV) alone, 3 MV combined with PrEP (tenofovir/emtricitabine), and 3 MV combined with placebo. Eligible participants were 18- to 22-year-old HIV-uninfected men who reported unprotected anal intercourse in the past year. Participants were screened for preliminary eligibility at youth venues and community organizations and were also referred through social networks. Laboratory screening determined final eligibility. Behavioral and biomedical data were collected at baseline and every 4 weeks thereafter for 24 weeks. Results: Sixty-eight youth (mean age = 19.97 years; 53% African American, 40% Latino) were enrolled; 58 were randomized. Selfreported medication adherence averaged 62% (range, 43%-83%), whereas rates of detectable tenofovir in plasma of participants in the emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate arm ranged from 63.2% (week 4) to 20% (week 24). There were 5 $ grade 2 adverse events possibly/probably related to the study medication. Sexual risk behavior declined from baseline to week 24 in all study arms. Conclusions: The feasibility of enrolling at-risk youth, particularly young men who have sex with men of color, into Project PrEPare has been demonstrated. The acceptability of the group intervention along with counseling and testing was high. Self-reported medication adherence and corresponding plasma drug concentrations were low indicating the need for enhanced adherence counseling. Exploration of PrEP use among youth in nonrandomized open label trials is warranted. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Dave M.,Case Western Reserve University |
Mehta K.,University of Pittsburgh |
Luther J.,Massachusetts General Hospital |
Baruah A.,John Stroger Hospital of Cook County |
And 2 more authors.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases | Year: 2015
Recent advances in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) therapeutics include novel medical, surgical, and endoscopic treatments. Among these, stem cell therapy is still in its infancy, although multiple studies suggest that the immunomodulatory effect of stem cell therapy may reduce inflammation and tissue injury in patients with IBD. This review discusses the novel avenue of stem cell therapy and its potential role in the management of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. We conducted a comprehensive literature search to identify studies examining the role of stem cell therapy (without conditioning and immunomodulatory regimens) in IBD. Taken together, these studies suggest a promising role for stem cell therapy in IBD although the substantial challenges, such as cost and inadequate/incomplete characterization of effect, limit their current use in clinical practice. © 2015 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.
Mirmonsef P.,Rush University Medical Center |
Gilbert D.,Rush University Medical Center |
Veazey R.S.,Tulane University |
Wang J.,University of Illinois at Chicago |
And 2 more authors.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses | Year: 2012
Understanding factors that affect heterosexual transmission of HIV in women is of great importance. Lactobacilli in the lower genital tract of women utilize glycogen in vaginal epithelial cells as an energy source and produce lactic acid. The resultant vaginal acidity is believed to provide protection against HIV infection. Conversely, bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by less lactic acid and a higher pH, and is associated with increased susceptibility to HIV infection. Because vaginal infection of macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) is used as a model to study HIV sexual transmission, and because previous studies have shown a paucity of lactobacilli in rhesus macaques' lower genital tract, we compared lactic acid and glycogen levels in the genital fluid of rhesus and pigtail macaques with levels found in humans. The levels of lactic acid were lower in both rhesus (median=1.2 mol lactate/mg protein) and pigtail macaques (median=0.7 mol/mg) compared to women with healthy genital microbiota (median=4.2 mol/mg). Glycogen levels were significantly lower in both rhesus (median=0.004 μg glycogen/μg protein) and pigtail macaques (median=0 μg/μg) than in women (median=0.2 μg/μg). No significant differences in glycogen or lactate levels were observed comparing longitudinally collected samples from cycling pigtail macaques. These data show that the previously reported scarcity of lactobacilli in macaques correlates with low glycogen and lactic acid levels. These findings have important implications for studies of vaginal infection of macaques with SIV or SHIV and further our understanding of how the bacterial microbiota influences HIV infection. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Brothers J.,John Stroger Hospital of Cook County |
Harper G.W.,University of Michigan |
Fernandez M.I.,Nova Southeastern University |
Hosek S.G.,John Stroger Hospital of Cook County
AIDS Patient Care and STDs | Year: 2014
In the United States, youth of 13-24 years account for nearly a quarter of all new HIV infections, with almost 1000 young men and women being infected per month. Young women account for 20% of those new infections. This article describes the design, feasibility, and acceptability of a secondary prevention empowerment intervention for young women living with HIV entitled EVOLUTION: Young Women Taking Charge and Growing Stronger. The nine session intervention aimed to reduce secondary transmission by enhancing social and behavioral skills and knowledge pertaining to young women's physical, social, emotional, and sexual well-being, while addressing the moderating factors such as sexual inequality and power imbalances. Process evaluation data suggest that EVOLUTION is a highly acceptable and feasible intervention for young women living with HIV. Participants reported enjoying both the structure and comprehensive nature of the intervention. Both participants and interventionists reported that the intervention was highly relevant to the lives of young women living with HIV since it not only provided opportunities for them to broaden their knowledge and risk reduction skills in HIV, but it also addressed important areas that impact their daily lives such as stressors, relationships, and their emotional and social well-being. Thus, this study demonstrates that providing a gender-specific, comprehensive group-based empowerment intervention for young women living with HIV appears to be both feasible and acceptable. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Hosek S.G.,John Stroger Hospital of Cook County |
Zimet G.D.,Indiana University
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2010
From both scientific and ethical perspectives, it is important that youth be enrolled in biomedical HIV prevention clinical trials. At the same time, adolescents, as minors, are considered a vulnerable population requiring particular attention to the reduction of potential harm associated with participation in such trials. In this article, we review the evidence supporting enrollment of youth in HIV clinical trials, including data on HIV infection rates, sexual behavior, and cognitive, psychosocial, and neurophysiological development. Next, we address the potential risks associated with clinical trial participation, with a focus on the concept of preventive misconception, the tendencies to (1) overestimate the probability of assignment to the experimental condition, as opposed to the placebo, and (2) assume that the experimental intervention is efficacious. Finally, we discuss targeted interventions to reduce preventive misconception and the importance of developing and testing adolescent-friendly risk-reduction interventions that are tailored to the structure and time frame of a biomedical HIV prevention clinical trial. The very issues that make inclusion of youth in HIV prevention clinical trials necessary also demand that particularly intensive efforts be made to protect participating minors from the harm that could accrue from a clinical trial. © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Dudukgian H.,John Stroger Hospital of Cook County |
Abcarian H.,John Stroger Hospital of Cook County |
Abcarian H.,University of Illinois at Chicago
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2011
Anal fistula is among the most common illnesses affecting man. Medical literature dating back to 400 BC has discussed this problem. Various causative factors have been proposed throughout the centuries, but it appears that the majority of fistulas unrelated to specific causes (e.g. Tuberculosis, Crohn's disease) result from infection (abscess) in anal glands extending from the intersphincteric plane to various anorectal spaces. The tubular structure of an anal fistula easily yields itself to division or unroofing (fistulotomy) or excision (fistulectomy) in most cases. The problem with this single, yet effective, treatment plan is that depending on the thickness of sphincter muscle the fistula transgresses, the patient will have varying degrees of fecal incontinence from minor to total. In an attempt to preserve continence, various procedures have been proposed to deal with the fistulas. These include: (1) simple drainage (Seton); (2) closure of fistula tract using fibrin sealant or anal fistula plug; (3) closure of primary opening using endorectal or dermal flaps, and more recently; and (4) ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT). In most complex cases (i.e. Crohn's disease), a proximal fecal diversion offers a measure of symptomatic relief. The fact remains that an "ideal" procedure for anal fistula remains elusive. The failure of each sphincter-preserving procedure (30%-50% recurrence) often results in multiple operations. In essence, the price of preservation of continence at all cost is multiple and often different operations, prolonged disability and disappointment for the patient and the surgeon. Nevertheless, the surgeon treating anal fistulas on an occasional basis should never hesitate in referring the patient to a specialist. Conversely, an expert colorectal surgeon must be familiar with many different operations in order to selectively tailor an operation to the individual patient. © 2011 Baishideng.
Babu A.,John Stroger Hospital of Cook County |
Babu A.,Rush University Medical Center
Drugs of Today | Year: 2013
Canagliflozin, an oral inhibitor of sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in the kidneys, leads to glucosuria and provides a unique mechanism to lower blood glucose levels in diabetes. It corrects a novel pathophysiological defect, has an insulin-independent action, reduces HbA1c by 0.5 to 1.1%, promotes weight loss, has a low incidence of hypoglycemia, complements the action of other antidiabetic agents, can be used at any stage of diabetes and appears to be safe in patients with compromised renal function. Due to side effects such as urinary tract and genital infections and decrease in blood pressure, proper patient selection for drug initiation and close monitoring will be important. Results of ongoing cardiovascular safety trials are important to determine the risk-benefit ratio. Canagliflozin is the first oral SGLT2 inhibitor approved in the U.S. market and it represents a promising approach for the treatment of diabetes in this era of increasing obesity. Copyright © 2013 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.
Hosek S.,John Stroger Hospital of Cook County |
Brothers J.,John Stroger Hospital of Cook County |
Lemos D.,John Stroger Hospital of Cook County
AIDS Patient Care and STDs | Year: 2012
Young women living with HIV in the United States face many social and psychological challenges, including involvement in health care and secondary prevention efforts. The factors that put these young women at risk for HIV acquisition initially, such as poverty, gender roles, cultural norms, and limited perceived control over sexual relationships, continue to place them at risk for both adverse mental and physical health outcomes that impact their daily lives and secondary prevention efforts. This study utilized focus groups with young HIV-positive women in order to better understand their perceived problems and pressures and to inform a developmentally appropriate secondary prevention intervention for young HIV-positive women that could be implemented in clinical care settings. Focus groups with young HIV-positive women were convened in three U.S. cities: Baltimore, Chicago, and Tampa. A total of 17 young, HIV-positive women, age range 17-24 (mean age=21), participated in the focus groups. This article describes the psychological and social challenges these young women face as well as their suggestions regarding secondary HIV prevention intervention components. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.