John ngell Va Medical Center

Detroit, MI, United States

John ngell Va Medical Center

Detroit, MI, United States

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Horne S.D.,Wayne State University | Chowdhury S.K.,John ngell Va Medical Center | Heng H.H.Q.,Wayne State University
Frontiers in Genetics | Year: 2014

Cells are constantly exposed to various internal and external stresses. The importance of cellular stress and its implication to disease conditions have become popular research topics. Many ongoing investigations focus on the sources of stress, their specific molecular mechanisms and interactions, especially regarding their contributions to many common and complex diseases through defined molecular pathways. Numerous molecular mechanisms have been linked to endoplasmic reticulum stress along with many unexpected findings, drastically increasing the complexity of our molecular understanding and challenging how to apply individual mechanism-based knowledge in the clinic. A newly emergent genome theory searches for the synthesis of a general evolutionary mechanism that unifies different types of stress and functional relationships from a genome-defined system point of view. Herein, we discuss the evolutionary relationship between stress and somatic cell adaptation under physiological, pathological, and somatic cell survival conditions, the multiple meanings to achieve adaptation and its potential trade-off. In particular, we purposely defocus from specific stresses and mechanisms by redirecting attention toward studying underlying general mechanisms. © 2014 Horne, Chowdhury and Heng.


Kowluru A.,Wayne State University | Kowluru A.,John ngell Va Medical Center
Endocrine Reviews | Year: 2010

Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from the islet β-cell involves a sequence of metabolic events and an interplay between a wide range of signaling pathways leading to the generation of second messengers (e.g., cyclic nucleotides, adenine and guanine nucleotides, soluble lipid messengers) and mobilization of calcium ions. Consequent to the generation of necessary signals, the insulin-laden secretory granules are transported from distal sites to the plasma membrane for fusion and release of their cargo into the circulation. The secretory granule transport underlies precise changes in cytoskeletal architecture involving a well-coordinated cross-talk between various signaling proteins, including small molecular mass GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) and their respective effector proteins. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of current understanding of the identity of small G proteins (e.g., Cdc42, Rac1, and ARF-6) and their corresponding regulatory factors (e.g., GDP/GTP-exchange factors, GDP-dissociation inhibitors) in the pancreatic β-cell. Plausible mechanisms underlying regulation of these signaling proteins by insulin secretagogues are also discussed. In addition to their positive modulatory roles, certain small G proteins also contribute to the metabolic dysfunction and demise of the islet β-cell seen in in vitro and in vivo models of impaired insulin secretion and diabetes. Emerging evidence also suggests significant insulin secretory abnormalities in small G protein knockout animals, further emphasizing vital roles for these proteins in normal healthandfunction of the islet β-cell. Potential significance of these experimental observations from multiple laboratories and possible avenues for future research in this area of islet research are highlighted. Copyright © 2010 by The Endocrine Society.


Kowluru A.,John ngell Va Medical Center | Kowluru A.,Wayne State University | Kowluru R.A.,Wayne State University
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Post-translational prenylation involves incorporation of 15-(farnesyl) or 20-(geranylgeranyl) carbon derivatives of mevalonic acid into highly conserved C-terminal cysteines of proteins. The farnesyl transferase (FTase) and the geranylgeranyl transferase (GGTase) mediate incorporation of farnesyl and geranylgeranyl groups, respectively. At least 300 proteins are prenylated in the human genome; the majority of these are implicated in cellular processes including growth, differentiation, cytoskeletal function and vesicle trafficking. From a functional standpoint, isoprenylation is requisite for targeting of modified proteins to relevant cellular compartments for regulation of effector proteins. Pharmacological and molecular biological studies have provided compelling evidence for key roles of this signaling pathway in physiological insulin secretion in normal rodent and human islets. Recent evidence indicates that inhibition of prenylation results in mislocalization of unprenylated proteins, and surprisingly, they remain in active (GTP-bound) conformation. Sustained activation of G proteins has been reported in mice lacking GGTase, suggesting alternate mechanisms for the activation of non-prenylated G proteins. These findings further raise an interesting question if mislocalized, non-prenylated and functionally active G proteins cause cellular pathology since aberrant protein prenylation has been implicated in the onset of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Herein, we overview the existing evidence to implicate prenylation in islet function and potential defects in this signaling pathways in the diabetic β-cell. We will also identify critical knowledge gaps that need to be addressed for the development of therapeutics to halt defects in these signaling steps in β cells in models of impaired insulin secretion, metabolic stress and diabetes. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc.


Funasaka T.,Nanzando Pharmacies Co. | Raz A.,Wayne State University | Nangia-Makker P.,Wayne State University | Nangia-Makker P.,John ngell Va Medical Center
Seminars in Cancer Biology | Year: 2014

Galectin-3, a member of β-galactoside-binding gene family is a multi-functional protein, which regulates pleiotropic biological functions such as cell growth, cell adhesion, cell-cell interactions, apoptosis, angiogenesis and mRNA processing. Its unique structure enables it to interact with a plethora of ligands in a carbohydrate dependent or independent manner. Galectin-3 is mainly a cytosolic protein, but can easily traverse the intracellular and plasma membranes to translocate into the nucleus, mitochondria or get externalized. Depending on the cell type, specific experimental conditions in vitro, cancer type and stage, galectin-3 has been reported to be exclusively cytoplasmic, predominantly nuclear or distributed between the two compartments. In this review we have summarized the dynamics of galectin-3 shuttling between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, the nuclear transport mechanisms of galectin-3, how its specific interactions with the members of β-catenin signaling pathways affect tumor progression, and its implications as a therapeutic target. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Kowluru A.,John ngell Va Medical Center | Kowluru A.,Wayne State University | Kowluru R.A.,Wayne State University
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Increased intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species [ROS] has been implicated in the pathology of metabolic [diabetes] and neurodegenerative [Alzheimer's] diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests NADPH oxidases [Noxs] as the principal source for cellular ROS in humans. Of this class of enzymes, the phagocyte-like Nox [Nox2] has come under intense scrutiny as one of the "culprits" for the induction of cellular damage culminating in the onset of diabetes and its complications. Functional regulation of Nox2 is fairly complex due to its membranous [gp91phox, p22phox] and cytosolic [p40phox, p47phox, p67phox and Rac1] cores, which require specific post-translational modification steps [phosphorylation and lipidation] for their membrane association. Therefore, optimal efficacy of Nox2 depends upon precise regulation of these signaling steps followed by translocation of the cytosolic components to the membrane. Interestingly, numerous recent studies have reported sustained activation of Nox2, ROS-derived oxidative stress, and cellular dysfunction in in vitro and in vivo models of glucolipotoxicity and diabetes. These investigations employed a variety of cell-permeable peptides and pharmacological inhibitors to impede Nox2 holoenzyme assembly and activation in pancreatic islet β-cells, cardiomyocytes and retinal endothelial cells under conditions of glucolipotoxicity and diabetes. Herein, we highlight the existing evidence to implicate Nox2 as the "trigger" of cellular damage, and identify critical gaps in our current understanding that need to be addressed to further affirm the roles of Nox2 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes and other metabolic disorders. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Inc.


Kowluru R.A.,Wayne State University | Kowluru A.,Wayne State University | Kowluru A.,John ngell Va Medical Center | Veluthakal R.,Wayne State University | And 6 more authors.
Diabetologia | Year: 2014

Aims/hypothesis: In diabetes, increased retinal oxidative stress is seen before the mitochondria are damaged. Phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase-2 (NOX2) is the predominant cytosolic source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Activation of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1), a NOX2 holoenzyme member, is necessary for NOX2 activation and ROS generation. In this study we assessed the role of T cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis (TIAM1), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for RAC1, in RAC1 and NOX2 activation and the onset of mitochondrial dysfunction in in vitro and in vivo models of glucotoxicity and diabetes. Methods: RAC1 and NOX2 activation, ROS generation, mitochondrial damage and cell apoptosis were quantified in bovine retinal endothelial cells exposed to high glucose concentrations, in the retina from normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and mice, and the retina from human donors with diabetic retinopathy. Results: High glucose activated RAC1 and NOX2 (expression and activity) and increased ROS in endothelial cells before increasing mitochondrial ROS and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage. N6-[2-[[4-(diethylamino)-1-methylbutyl]amino]-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinyl] -2-methyl-4,6-quinolinediamine, trihydrochloride (NSC23766), a known inhibitor of TIAM1-RAC1, markedly attenuated RAC1 activation, total and mitochondrial ROS, mtDNA damage and cell apoptosis. An increase in NOX2 expression and membrane association of RAC1 and p47phox were also seen in diabetic rat retina. Administration of NSC23766 to diabetic mice attenuated retinal RAC1 activation and ROS generation. RAC1 activation and p47phox expression were also increased in the retinal microvasculature from human donors with diabetic retinopathy. Conclusions/interpretation: The TIAM1-RAC1-NOX2 signalling axis is activated in the initial stages of diabetes to increase intracellular ROS leading to mitochondrial damage and accelerated capillary cell apoptosis. Strategies targeting TIAM1-RAC1 signalling could have the potential to halt the progression of diabetic retinopathy in the early stages of the disease. © 2014 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).


Kumar B.,Wayne State University | Kowluru A.,Wayne State University | Kowluru A.,John ngell Va Medical Center | Kowluru R.A.,Wayne State University
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2015

Purpose. Although hyperglycemia is the main instigator in the development of diabetic retinopathy, dyslipidemia is also considered to play an important role. In the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, cytosolic NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) is activated before retinal mitochondria are damaged. Our aim was to investigate the effect of lipids in the development of diabetic retinopathy. Methods. Reactive oxygen species (ROS, by 20,70-dichlorofluorescein diacetate) and activities of Nox2 (by a lucigenin-based method) and Rac1 (by G-LISA) were quantified in retinal endothelial cells incubated with 50 μM palmitate in 5 mM glucose (lipotoxicity) or 20 mM glucose (glucolipotoxicity) for 6 to 96 hours. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage was evaluated by extended-length PCR and its transcription by quantifying cytochrome b transcripts. Results. Within 6 hours of exposure of endothelial cells to lipotoxicity, or glucotoxicity (20 mM glucose, without palmitate), significant increase in ROS, Nox2, and Rac1 was observed, which was exacerbated by glucolipotoxic insult. At 48 hours, neither lipotoxicity nor glucotoxicity had any effect on mtDNA and its transcription, but glucolipotoxicity significantly damaged mtDNA and decreased cytochrome b transcripts, and at 96 hours, glucotoxicity and glucolipotoxicity produced similar detrimental effects on mitochondrial damage. Conclusions. Although during initial exposure, lipotoxic or glucotoxic insult produces similar increase in ROS, addition of lipotoxicity in a glucotoxic environment further exacerbates ROS production, and also accelerates their damaging effects on mitochondrial homeostasis. Thus, modulation of Nox2 by pharmacological agents in prediabetic patients with dyslipidemia could retard the development of retinopathy before their hyperglycemia is observable. © 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.


Franson H.E.,John ngell Va Medical Center
AANA Journal | Year: 2010

An exciting revolution in pediatric pain control has evolved in anesthesia during the past 2 decades. The creative use of systemic analgesic techniques has dramatically improved the quality of postoperative pain management. The postsurgical pediatric population is reaping the benefits of such advancements in acute pain management, as there is an increasing use of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). The goal of PCA is to provide safe and effective postoperative pain control by achieving a continuous level of analgesia in the body, along with the opportunity for bolus doses as requested by the patient. The aim of this analgesic technique is optimal pain relief and a high level of patient and parent satisfaction. This review of the literature addresses safety issues, indications, contraindications, complications, and dosing regimens related to pediatric PCA. Recommendations for continuous pulse oximetry and sedation monitoring, along with individualized dosage requirements, are presented to decrease the incidence of complications. Overall, the literature shows that PCA provides adequate pain control and high levels of satisfaction for the pediatric postsurgical population and their families.


Axelrod B.N.,John ngell Va Medical Center | Schutte C.,John ngell Va Medical Center
Clinical Neuropsychologist | Year: 2010

The Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) was administered as part of a neuropsychological battery to a mixed clinical sample of 286 consecutively referred individuals. Of the 47% of the sample who failed in the easy subtests, 48% were considered to have the dementia profile. The remaining 52% of individuals failing the easy subtests were considered by the task to have poor effort. Comparing the neuropsychological test performance among these three groups (Pass, Dementia Profile, Poor Effort) found that on most tasks those individuals passing the easy subtests of the MSVT perform significantly better than the other two groups, which did not differ from each other. Individuals meeting criteria for the Dementia Profile performed worse on tasks of motor functioning and list learning in comparison to the Poor Effort group. The results suggest that the algorithm creating a Dementia Profile does not effectively differentiate groups of individuals who fail the easy subtests of the MSVT. Consideration of a more liberal cutoff score for the easy subtests is offered. © 2010 Psychology Press.


Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired reciprocal social interaction, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors. A very large number of genes have been linked to autism, many of which encode proteins involved in the development and function of synaptic circuitry. However, the manner in which these mutated genes might participate, either individually or together, to cause autism is not understood. One factor known to exert extremely broad influence on brain development and network formation, and which has been linked to autism, is the neurotransmitter serotonin. Unfortunately, very little is known about how alterations in serotonin neuronal function might contribute to autism. To test the hypothesis that serotonin dysfunction can contribute to the core symptoms of autism, we analyzed mice lacking brain serotonin (via a null mutation in the gene for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2)) for behaviors that are relevant to this disorder. Mice lacking brain serotonin (TPH2-/-) showed substantial deficits in numerous validated tests of social interaction and communication. These mice also display highly repetitive and compulsive behaviors. Newborn TPH2-/- mutant mice show delays in the expression of key developmental milestones and their diminished preference for maternal scents over the scent of an unrelated female is a forerunner of more severe socialization deficits that emerge in weanlings and persist into adulthood. Taken together, these results indicate that a hypo-serotonin condition can lead to behavioral traits that are highly characteristic of autism. Our findings should stimulate new studies that focus on determining how brain hyposerotonemia during critical neurodevelopmental periods can alter the maturation of synaptic circuits known to be mis-wired in autism and how prevention of such deficits might prevent this disorder.

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