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Taormina P.J.,John Morrell Food Group
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2010

Excess sodium consumption has been cited as a primary cause of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt (sodium chloride) is considered the main source of sodium in the human diet, and it is estimated that processed foods and restaurant foods contribute 80% of the daily intake of sodium in most of the Western world. However, ample research demonstrates the efficacy of sodium chloride against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in a variety of food systems. Notable examples of the utility and necessity of sodium chloride include the inhibition of growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum in processed meats and cheeses. Other sodium salts contributing to the overall sodium consumption are also very important in the prevention of spoilage and/or growth of microorganisms in foods. For example, sodium lactate and sodium diacetate are widely used in conjunction with sodium chloride to prevent the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in ready-to-eat meats. These and other examples underscore the necessity of sodium salts, particularly sodium chloride, for the production of safe, wholesome foods. Key literature on the antimicrobial properties of sodium chloride in foods is reviewed here to address the impact of salt and sodium reduction or replacement on microbiological food safety and quality. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Taormina P.J.,John Morrell Food Group
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2014

Pet treats, including pig ears, have been implicated as vehicles of human salmonellosis, and Salmonella has been isolated on commercially produced pig ears. Therefore, behavior of the pathogen on this very low water activity (aw) pet treat is of interest. The survival of Salmonella serotypes Newport and Typhimurium DT104 was measured on natural (aw 0.256) and smoked (aw 0.306) pig ear pet treat products inoculated at ca. 6.5 log CFU per sample and stored at 4.4 or 22°C for 365 days. Surviving populations of Salmonella were enumerated periodically, and a modified Weibull model was used to fit the inactivation curves for log populations. After 14 days, the decline of Salmonella was significantly (P < 0.05) greater at 22°C than at 4.4°C. By 365 days of storage at 4.4°C, Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 declined by 2.19 log on smoked pig ears and 1.14 log on natural pig ears, while Salmonella Newport declined by 4.20 log on smoked pig ears and 2.08 log on natural pig ears. Populations of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on refrigerated natural pig ears rebounded between day 152 (3.21 log CFU per sample) and day 175 (4.79 log CFU per sample) and rose gradually for the duration of the study to 5.28 log CFU per sample. The model fits for survival rate of Salmonella on pig ears at 4.4°C show a rapid initial decline followed by a long tailing effect. Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on natural pig ears at 4.4°C had the slowest rate of reduction. At 22°C Salmonella declined nonlinearly by >4.5 log for each combination of serotype and pig ear type at 227deg;C but remained detectable by enrichment. The model parameter for days to first decimal reduction of Salmonella on pig ears was two to three times higher at 4.4°C compared with 22°C, demonstrating that Salmonella slowly declines on very low aw refrigerated pet treats and more rapidly at room temperature. This information may be useful for pet treat safety assessments. © International Association for Food Protection. Source


Taormina P.J.,John Morrell Food Group | Dorsa W.J.,John Morrell Food Group
Food Microbiology | Year: 2010

Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on cooked bacon cubes (aw 0.910 ± 0.080), strips (aw 0.726 ± 0.054), and bits (aw 0.620 ± 0.038) was determined during a 25 week storage period at -20, 4.4, and 22 °C. Selective enrichment and subsequent enzyme-linked fluorescent antibody (ELFA) detection were used to asses survival on samples inoculated at ca. 1-log10 CFU/g (LI). Samples inoculated at ca. 5.5-log10 CFU/g (HI) were analyzed over time by direct plating on modified Oxford medium (MOX). The Baranyi model was fitted to the inactivation curves of HI samples using the DMFit program. At -20 °C, a decline of about 1-log10 CFU/g occurred on all HI cooked bacon types by 14 weeks, although most LI samples remained positive by the ELFA detection method for 25 weeks. At 4.4 and 22 °C, some strips and bits LI samples were negative for the pathogen within 3 weeks, and >1.5 log10 CFU/g reductions occurred on HI strips and bits by 8 weeks. Reductions on cubes at refrigeration and ambient temperature were ca. 0.5 log10 CFU/g, and cubes remained positive on LI samples for 25 weeks. Rate parameter estimates indicated that the population declined fastest on strips and bits at 22 °C compared to all other product and temperature combinations. This study demonstrates that cooked bacon does not support the growth of L. monocytogenes and that the pathogen gradually dies off during storage. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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