New York City, NY, United States

John Jay College of Criminal Justice
New York City, NY, United States

The John Jay College of Criminal Justice is a senior college of the City University of New York in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, and was founded as the only liberal arts college with a criminal justice and forensic focus in the United States. The college is known for its programs in criminal justice studies, forensic science, and forensic psychology programs. Wikipedia.

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News Article | May 15, 2017

FILE - This Aug. 2, 2005 file photo shows the Venetian Hotel and Casino on the Las Vegas Strip. The death of an unarmed man after police squeezed his neck during a struggle to subdue him outside the Las Vegas Strip casino raised questions about the risks of the technique designed to restrict the flow of blood to the brain. The American Civil Liberties Union of Nevada, which led a push for use-of-force reforms after Las Vegas police were involved in 25 shootings in 2010, said Monday, May 15, 2017, it will seek a review of the training that allows officers to use the technique.(AP Photo/Joe Cavaretta, File) LAS VEGAS (AP) — The death of an unarmed man after police squeezed his neck during a struggle to subdue him outside a Las Vegas Strip casino raised questions Monday about the risks of the technique designed to restrict the flow of blood to the brain. The American Civil Liberties Union of Nevada, which led a push for use-of-force reforms after Las Vegas police were involved in 25 shootings in 2010, will seek a review of the training that allows officers to use what the department calls "lateral vascular neck restraint," ACLU executive Tod Story said. "We're aware that they use this. But there has got to be another option," Story said. "There have been people in custody who have died. It really should no longer be used." Clark County District Attorney Steve Wolfson said there will be a public use-of-force review to air the findings of the investigation of the death early Sunday of Tashii S. Brown, 40, of Las Vegas. The county coroner said a ruling is pending on what killed Brown. Brown, who also used the name Tashi Sebastian Farmer, grew up in Hawaii and lived in recent years with his mother in Las Vegas, said Tynisa Braun, a cousin in Honolulu. Brown was a father of two children in Hawaii and had a business in Las Vegas selling shoes, hats and clothing, she said. Las Vegas police scheduled a Wednesday news briefing about Brown's death and refused to release any information beyond a written statement issued Sunday. The officers involved were not immediately identified, and it wasn't clear if they remained on-duty while the department investigates the death. The statement said Brown acted "erratic," approaching two police officers inside The Venetian resort, claiming people were chasing him, and then running through a secured area to an outside door. The officers chased him into a parking area at the rear of the hotel, where an officer used a stun gun and fists in a fight to subdue him. Venetian security guards also joined the struggle, police said. A police officer squeezed Brown's neck from the side before Brown lost consciousness, according to the police account. It said officers began CPR, but Brown was pronounced dead at Sunrise Hospital & Medical Center. It wasn't immediately clear if the fatal struggle was captured on security video. A Venetian spokesman, Ron Reese, referred questions to police. Eugene O'Donnell, a former New York police officer who is a professor at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice, said police in New York are taught not to use any kind of chokehold. "NYPD doesn't want you going for the neck under any circumstances," said O'Donnell, who recalled the public outcry about police use of force after the July 2014 death of Eric Garner in Staten Island. A passer-by with a cellphone recorded the 43-year-old Garner calling out, "I can't breathe" while officers pinned him to the sidewalk in an apparent chokehold while trying to arrest him for selling loose, untaxed cigarettes. O'Donnell called it harder than it looks to handcuff a person who resists arrest, but said reaching for the neck can be dangerous. "Carotid artery versus airway. There are a lot of variables, including the competence of the officer, the condition of the person, mental health issues, whether they're a smoker, alcohol (use)," O'Donnell said. "In the midst of a violent interaction, it's different from doing it in a classroom."

When former high-ranking FBI officials read one particular line in President Trump’s statement on the firing of James Comey on Tuesday evening, it just seemed odd. After bluntly informing the FBI director that he was “terminated” based on the recommendation of the attorney general and deputy attorney general, Trump added, in his own inimitable way: “While I greatly appreciate you informing me, on three separate occasions, that I am not under investigation,” he was still going to fire him. Trump’s assertion here is that Comey, the man leading the FBI probe into his campaign’s ties with Russia, had personally told him—not once, but three times—that he is off the hook. But would that really happen? Several former high-ranking FBI officials took the president’s claim as hard to believe. “Trump’s statement was completely self-serving and I don’t trust it,” former FBI assistant director Ronald Hosko told Fast Company. “Comey knows his job and he’s smart. He’s going to keep things close to this vest and he’s not going to talk about sensitive matters to someone who has a smartphone close to him and likes to tweet.” Though it’s not prohibited by law, the bureau has strict limits on communicating about pending investigations, especially with the subject of that inquiry. Per a 2009 memo by then-AG Eric Holder, the Justice Department will advise the president on such investigations or cases “when—but only when—it is important for the performance of the President’s duties and appropriate from a law enforcement perspective.” That kind of discretion is part of the bureau’s culture, says former FBI special agent David M. Shapiro, who’s now a professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. “You would never ever say anything about such an investigation to anybody. That kind of thing is so rare.” And there are protocols that guide such interactions. “It would be unusual for the FBI director or the deputy director to have conversations with White House officials without the presence of the attorney general or deputy attorney general,” former Attorney General Alberto Gonzales told CNN. “When I read that, right away it stood out,” says a former FBI official, who is a lifelong Republican and prefers not to be named. “It’s something Trump would say, that he wants you to believe, though it doesn’t make any sense to anyone who’s worked at the bureau.” Trump’s claim is not accurate, sources tell the Washington Post, though FBI officials declined to comment. When asked at a White House press conference about the statement, spokesperson Sarah Huckabee Sanders replied: “I’m not going to get into the specifics of their conversations, but I can tell you that Director Comey relayed that information to the president.”

Widom C.S.,John Jay College of Criminal Justice
Criminology | Year: 2014

There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a "one-size-fits-all" approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures. © 2014 American Society of Criminology.

Petrossian G.A.,John Jay College of Criminal Justice
Biological Conservation | Year: 2015

Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing is a significant problem that affects the marine ecosystem and those who depend on it for survival. Research and theory in criminology can shed light on the problem and suggest policy instruments to reduce IUU fishing. Informed by rational choice theory and situational crime prevention framework, this study examines the relationship between local situational factors and illegal fishing in 53 countries. Results suggest that a country's risk of illegal fishing is positively related to the number of commercially significant species found within its territorial waters and its proximity to known ports of convenience. Countries that exercise effective fisheries management and have strong patrol surveillance capacity experience less illegal fishing activity within their territorial waters. The presence of legally fishing vessels does not deter illegal fishing activity. These findings demonstrate the utility of thinking about illegal fishing through the lens of criminology, which is equipped with practical tools to address the problem. Findings suggest a dialogue between criminologists and conservationists to work together to address similar problems affecting the environment. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Corthals A.P.,John Jay College of Criminal Justice
Quarterly Review of Biology | Year: 2011

Multiple sclerosis is a complex neurodegenerative disease, thought to arise through autoimmunity against antigens of the central nervous system. The autoimmunity hypothesis fails to explain why genetic and environmental risk factors linked to the disease in one population tend to be unimportant in other populations. Despite great advances in documenting the cell and molecular mechanisms underlying MS pathophysiology, the autoimmunity framework has also been unable to develop a comprehensive explanation of the etiology of the disease. I propose a new framework for understanding MS as a dysfunction of the metabolism of lipids. Specifically, the homeostasis of lipid metabolism collapses during acute-phase inflammatory response triggered by a pathogen, trauma, or stress, starting a feedback loop of increased oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and proliferation of cytoxic foam cells that cross the blood brain barrier and both catabolize myelin and prevent remyelination. Understanding MS as a chronic metabolic disorder illuminates four aspects of disease onset and progression: 1) its pathophysiology; 2) genetic susceptibility; 3) environmental and pathogen triggers; and 4) the skewed sex ratio of patients. It also suggests new avenues for treatment. © 2011 by The University of Chicago Press.

Nadal K.L.,John Jay College of Criminal Justice
Journal of Counseling Psychology | Year: 2011

Racial microaggressions are subtle statements and behaviors that unconsciously communicate denigrating messages to people of color. In recent years, a theoretical taxonomy and subsequent qualitative studies have introduced the types of microaggressions that people of color experience. In the present study, college- and Internet-based samples of African Americans, Latina/os, Asian Americans, and multiracial participants (N = 661) were used to develop and validate the Racial and Ethnic Microaggression Scale (REMS). In Study 1, an exploratory principal-components analyses (n = 443) yielded a 6-factor model: (a) Assumptions of Inferiority, (b) Second-Class Citizen and Assumptions of Criminality, (c) Microinvalidations, (d) Exoticization/Assumptions of Similarity, (e) Environmental Microaggressions, and (f) Workplace and School Microaggressions, with a Cronbach's alpha of .912 for the overall model and subscales ranging from .783 to .873. In Study 2, a confirmatory factor analysis (n = 218) supported the 6-factor model with a Cronbach's alpha of .892. Further analyses indicate that the REMS is a valid measure of racial microaggressions, as evidenced by high correlations with existing measures of racism and participants' feedback. Future research directions and implications for practice are discussed. © 2011 American Psychological Association.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: LAW AND SOCIAL SCIENCES | Award Amount: 142.89K | Year: 2014

Juries are the bedrock of the American judicial system. Six or twelve people join together in a collaborative effort to arrive at a verdict. During deliberation, jurors must not only come to a verdict based on the evidence presented during the trial, but they must also remember the evidence. To a large extent, jurors must rely on their own memory. Here, the assumption of the Courts is that the collective memory of a jury is likely to lead to a better, more complete recollection than any individual effort. The difficulty with this position is that there is burgeoning psychological evidence indicating that groups often remember less than the sum of what individuals are capable of remembering. Moreover, extant research demonstrates that what one person says in a conversation can alter the memory of other participants - by imposing misleading information or inducing forgetting, for example. Although both types of conversational effects can affect subsequent decision-making, it is possible that, even more critically, both types can be mitigated in certain circumstances. To this end, the present research explores the way jury deliberation might reshape the memories jurors have of the evidence presented during the trial, the effect any change in memory might have on the verdict of the jury, and the means of mitigating these deliberation effects.

The research involves seven experiments employing a mock jury methodology. They will examine whether (1) research concerning collaborative remembering applies to jury deliberations; (2) the emergent consensus story of a jury reflects the conversational dynamics consistent with what is known about conversational remembering; (3) the verdict of a jury can be traced to these conversational influences on memory; (4) the conversational influences on memory are a function of the composition of the jury; and (5) ways exist to mitigate these potentially negative conversational effects through instruction or use of mnemonic technology.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: EARS | Award Amount: 499.99K | Year: 2014

The scientists identify fair resource sharing methods as a critical concern in the design of smart radio networks. The researchers note that fair sharing of resources is of fundamental importance in human communities, and propose to apply social network methods to the design of dynamic spectrum access systems. By applying the experience from a mature field, they plan to solve some of the more complex issues related to spectrum sharing in a constantly changing technical environment.

In drawing the connection from the problem of resource-sharing in Cognitive Radio (CR), to models of solutions found within human/animal societies, the proposed research evaluates the extent to which our models of patterns of co-use in biological systems can be profitably leveraged within the context of distributed uncoordinated CR societies to enable individuals and groups to maximize their utility. Of particular relevance to this endeavor is recent ethnographic research on foraging networks of indigenous peoples and human foragers, which has found social relations to be a critical context in which natural selection acts on resource use and co-use behaviors. These findings concerning human behavior lie at the forefront of anthropology, revealing the tensions between sharing networks and optimal strategies and altering our understanding of past human social evolution, and by extension, our vision of the future evolution of artificial CR societies.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: LAW AND SOCIAL SCIENCES | Award Amount: 348.75K | Year: 2014

This research addresses questions about racial and ethnic prejudice in criminal trials. Reviews of convictions and sentencing in actual cases, and findings from trial simulation experiments, provide evidence of discrimination against minorities. National polls and media stories reveal that prejudice remains prevalent in America. But research has provided little insight into how prejudice operates in the courtroom and has not identified critical factors that increase or decrease discrimination. Through a series of experiments involving trial simulations, the project seeks better theoretical understanding of how and when a defendants race/ethnicity influences jury decisions. It also aims to identify interventions that lessen courtroom bias, thereby providing policy and practice suggestions to the legal community. These are important undertakings in a diverse society that seeks equal justice for all.

Eight trial simulation experiments will be conducted in which Black, Hispanic, and White jury-eligible citizens serve as mock-jurors. They will provide verdict preferences and other impressions after reviewing a trial in which the defendant is a member of either their racial/ethnic group (an ingroup defendant) or one of the other groups (an outgroup defendant). In some experiments, mock-jurors will also deliberate. Social-psychological theory guides the research and offers a framework for integrating diverse findings from sociology, criminal justice, criminology, and psychology. Based on social-psychological theory, a sense of threat -- to social identity, cultural worldview, or security -- should increase discrimination in the form of greater perceived guilt and convictions of outgroup defendants. Prejudice is understood to exist at an unconscious or implicit level, even among many who consciously reject prejudice. To assess the impact of these factors, some experiments examine whether discrimination increases when participant-jurors experience these threats through information encountered prior to the trial. Additional experiments focus on ways to reduce discrimination, including judges instructions to guard against prejudice and the opportunity to deliberate. Results will inform decision making in the criminal justice system.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 632.17K | Year: 2014

The John Jay Forensic Science and Computer Science Scholarship supports academically talented students with demonstrated financial need in attaining baccalaureate degrees in Forensic Science and Computer Science at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice within the City University of New York (CUNY). The project features culturally sensitive recruiting within diverse student audiences at CUNY and at New York City public schools, and builds on a prior successful S-STEM award during which retention rates have steadily risen. Cohort-building and academic-support activities for scholars include faculty and peer mentoring, opportunities to participate in undergraduate research, and a variety of social and community activities to increase both academic and social engagement. The intellectual merit of the project lies in its thorough and nuanced approach to support student recruitment and success by supplementing financial support with practices grounded in the literature on retention and engagement, particularly for students from groups underrepresented in STEM. The broader impacts include expanding and diversifying the local and regional workforce in high-needs areas of forensic and computer science, as well as providing a model approach for supporting diverse, academically talented students in these fields.

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