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The John Jay College of Criminal Justice is a senior college of the City University of New York in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, and was founded as the only liberal arts college with a criminal justice and forensic focus in the United States. The college is known for its programs in criminal justice studies, forensic science, and forensic psychology programs. Wikipedia.

Sengupta S.,John Jay College of Criminal Justice | Subbalakshmi K.,Stevens Institute of Technology
IEEE Communications Magazine | Year: 2013

Cognitive radio networks hold the key to achieving better radio bandwidth utilization and improving the quality of wireless applications. The next step in this fast emerging paradigm is the multi-hop cognitive radio network. Well designed multi-hop cognitive radio networks can provide high bandwidth efficiency by using dynamic spectrum access technologies as well as provide extended coverage and ubiquitous connectivity for the wireless end users. However, the special features of multi-hop cognitive radio networks also raise several unique design challenges. In this article, we survey these unique challenges and open research issues in the design of multi-hop cognitive radio networks as well as discuss potential approaches to address these challenges. This article specifically focuses on the medium access control (MAC) and network layers of the multi-hop cognitive radio protocol stack. Issues considered include efficient spectrum sharing, optimal relay node selection, interference mitigation, end-to-end delay, etc. © 1979-2012 IEEE. Source

Widom C.S.,John Jay College of Criminal Justice
Criminology | Year: 2014

There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a "one-size-fits-all" approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures. © 2014 American Society of Criminology. Source

Wilson H.W.,Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science | Widom C.S.,John Jay College of Criminal Justice
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology | Year: 2011

Objective: This study examines the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and sexual risk behavior in middle adulthood and whether psychosocial factors (risky romantic relationships, affective symptoms, drug and alcohol use, and delinquent and criminal behavior) mediate this relationship. Method: Children with documented cases of physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect (ages 0-11) processed during 1967-1971 were matched with nonmaltreated children and followed into middle adulthood (approximate age 41). Mediators were assessed in young adulthood (approximate age 29) through in-person interviews between 1989 and 1995 and official arrest records through 1994 (N = 1,196). Past year HIV-risk sexual behavior was assessed via self-reports during 2003-2004 (N = 800). Logistic regression was used to examine differences in sexual risk behavior between the abuse and neglect and control groups, and latent variable structural equation modeling was used to test mediator models. Results: Child abuse and neglect was associated with increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in middle adulthood, odds ratio = 2.84, 95 CI [1.74, 4.64], p ≤ .001, and this relationship was mediated by risky romantic relationships in young adulthood. Conclusions: Results of this study draw attention to the potential long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect for physical health, in particular sexual risk, and point to romantic relationships as an important focus of intervention and prevention efforts. © 2011 American Psychological Association. Source

Korobkova E.A.,John Jay College of Criminal Justice
Chemical Research in Toxicology | Year: 2015

Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are a large group of hemeproteins located on mitochondrial membranes or the endoplasmic reticulum. They play a crucial role in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous molecules. The activity of CYP is associated with a number of factors including redox potential, protein conformation, the accessibility of the active site by substrates, and others. This activity may be potentially modulated by a variety of small molecules. Extensive experimental data collected over the past decade point at the active role of natural polyphenols in modulating the catalytic activity of CYP. Polyphenols are widespread micronutrients present in human diets of plant origin and in medicinal herbs. These compounds may alter the activity of CYP either via direct interactions with the enzymes or by affecting CYP gene expression. The polyphenol-CYP interactions may significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of drugs and thus influence the effectiveness of chemical therapies used in the treatment of different types of cancers, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). CYPs are involved in the oxidation and activation of external carcinogenic agents, in which case the inhibition of the CYP activity is beneficial for health. CYPs also support detoxification processes. In this case, it is the upregulation of CYP genes that would be favorable for the organism. A CYP enzyme aromatase catalyzes the formation of estrone and estradiol from their precursors. CYPs also catalyze multiple reactions leading to the oxidation of estrogen. Estrogen signaling and oxidative metabolism of estrogen are associated with the development of cancer. Thus, polyphenol-mediated modulation of the CYP's activity also plays a vital role in estrogen carcinogenesis. The aim of the present review is to summarize the data collected over the last five to six years on the following topics: (1) the mechanisms of the interactions of CYP with food constituents that occur via the direct binding of polyphenols to the enzymes and (2) the mechanisms of the regulation of CYP gene expression mediated by polyphenols. The structure-activity relationship relevant to the ability of polyphenols to affect the activity of CYP is analyzed. The application of polyphenol-CYP interactions to diseases is discussed. (Figure Presented). © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

Petrossian G.A.,John Jay College of Criminal Justice
Biological Conservation | Year: 2015

Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing is a significant problem that affects the marine ecosystem and those who depend on it for survival. Research and theory in criminology can shed light on the problem and suggest policy instruments to reduce IUU fishing. Informed by rational choice theory and situational crime prevention framework, this study examines the relationship between local situational factors and illegal fishing in 53 countries. Results suggest that a country's risk of illegal fishing is positively related to the number of commercially significant species found within its territorial waters and its proximity to known ports of convenience. Countries that exercise effective fisheries management and have strong patrol surveillance capacity experience less illegal fishing activity within their territorial waters. The presence of legally fishing vessels does not deter illegal fishing activity. These findings demonstrate the utility of thinking about illegal fishing through the lens of criminology, which is equipped with practical tools to address the problem. Findings suggest a dialogue between criminologists and conservationists to work together to address similar problems affecting the environment. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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