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Gemmete J.J.,University of Michigan | Chaudhary N.,University of Michigan | Pandey A.,University of Michigan | Gandhi D.,John Hopkins Medical Institutions | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Neuroradiology | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Few reports have described the embolization of head and neck lesions by using direct percutaneous techniques. We report our preliminary experience in the direct percutaneous embolization of hypervascular head and neck tumors by using Onyx in conjunction with standard endovascular embolization techniques. We describe the technical aspects of the procedure and its efficacy in reducing intraoperative blood loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied 14 patients (3 females and 11 males; mean age, 33.4 years; range, 11-56 years) with 15 hypervascular tumors of the head and neck that underwent direct percutaneous embolization with Onyx in conjunction with particulate embolization. Nine paragangliomas and 6 JNAs underwent treatment. Documented blood loss was obtained from operative reports in these 15 patients with surgical resection performed 24-48 hours after the embolization. RESULTS: Intratumoral penetration with progressive blood flow stasis was achieved during each injection. A mean of 3.1 needles (20-gauge, 3.5-inch spinal needle) were placed percutaneously into the lesion (range, 1-6). The mean intraoperative blood loss was 780 mL (range, <50-2200 mL). Near total angiographic devascularization was achieved in 13 of 15 tumors. There were no local complications or neurologic deficits from the percutaneous access or embolization of these hypervascular tumors. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the use of percutaneous injected Onyx in conjunction with standard endovascular embolization techniques in patients with hypervascular head and neck tumors seemed to enhance the ability to devascularize these tumors before operative removal.


Chen Z.,Wake forest University | Greenwood C.,Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research | Greenwood C.,McGill University | Isaacs W.B.,John Hopkins Medical Institutions | And 5 more authors.
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2013

A novel rare mutation, homeobox B13 (HOXB13) G84E, was reported to co-segregate with prostate cancer (PCa) in hereditary PCa families and associate with PCa risk in unrelated cases and controls. In this study, we aim to compare the G84E mutation frequency among subjects of different races/ethnicities from various geographic regions in the world and to assess its risk for developing PCa, in the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial. All the 3508 subjects had initial negative prostate biopsy and were biopsied at Year 2 and 4 for detection of PCa. The G84E mutation was detected only in Caucasians, with the highest carrier frequency in Northern Europe (1.06%), followed by Western Europe (0.60%) and North America (0.31%). No mutation carrier was observed in Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, Latin America, Australia and South Africa. In Caucasians, the G84E mutation frequency was 0.99% and 0.24% in positive and negative biopsy subjects, respectively (P = 0.01). In positive biopsy subjects, the frequency was significantly higher in subjects with a positive family history than those without (4.31% versus 0.34%, P = 0.002). In the 4 year follow-up, the PCa detection rate was 53.8% among the 13 mutation carriers and 22.0% among 3186 non-carriers, relative risk = 2.45 (95% confidence interval: 1.48-4.07). All mutation carriers shared a common haplotype, suggesting a founder effect. In Finland, the G84E mutation was estimated to occur in the year 1792 (95% credible interval: 1735-1831). In conclusion, the G84E mutation of HOXB13, a relatively recent mutation that likely occurred in Northern Europe, significantly increases risk for PCa. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


El-Naggar A.K.,University of Houston | Westra W.H.,John Hopkins Medical Institutions
Head and Neck | Year: 2012

Recent studies of oropharyngeal carcinoma have reported remarkable correlation between integrated human papillomavirus (HPV) viral detection and p16 protein overexpression in tumor cells. These findings led to calls for the substitution of p16 expression for the more demanding HPV testing in clinical practice. The rationale for such practice is largely driven by the simplicity, low cost, and the feasibility of the immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. There are, however, several caveats that need to be fully considered. These include the subjective nature of IHC evaluation, the variable mechanisms of p16 expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and the lack of scoring and interpretive criteria. This perspective addresses the conceptual and practical issues associated with the p16 expression analysis and provides a broad outline for its application and evaluation in patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Kaur J.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Demokan S.,Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions | Tripathi S.C.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | MacHa M.A.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

We evaluated promoter hypermethylation of a panel of tumor suppressor genes as a means to detect epigenetic alterations in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) of Indian-origin and compare with North-American head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Quantitative-methylation-specific PCR was used to investigate the promoter methylation status of DCC, EDNRB, p16INK4a and KIF1A in 92 OSCC, and compared to 48 paired normal tissues and 30 saliva and sera samples from healthy control subjects. Aberrant methylation of at-least one of these genes was detected in 74/92 (80.4%) OSCC; 72.8% at EDNRB, 71.7% at KIF1A, 47.8% at p16INK4a and 58.7% at DCC; and in 5 of 48 (10.4%) normal oral tissues. None of the saliva and sera samples from controls exhibited DNA methylation in these four target genes. Thirty-two of 72 node positive cases harbored p16INK4a and DCC hypermethylation (p = 0.005). Thus, promoter hypermethylation in genes analyzed herein is a common event in Indian OSCC and may represent promising markers for the molecular staging of OSCC patients. We found higher frequency of p16INK4a methylation (47.8%) in this Indian cohort in comparison with a North-American cohort (37.5%). In conclusion, aberrant methylation of EDNRB, KIF1A, DCC and p16INK4a genes is a common event in Indian OSCC, suggesting that epigenetic alterations of these genes warrant validation in larger studies for their potential use as biomarkers. © 2010 UICC.


Weeks K.R.,University of Baltimore | Goeschel C.A.,University of Baltimore | Cosgrove S.E.,John Hopkins Medical Institutions | Romig M.,University of Baltimore | Berenholtz S.M.,University of Baltimore
Current Infectious Disease Reports | Year: 2011

Central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI) are among the most common, lethal, and costly health care-associated infections. Recent large collaborative quality improvement efforts have achieved unprecedented and sustained reductions in CLABSI rates and demonstrate that these infections are largely preventable, even for exceedingly ill patients. The broad acceptance that zero CLABSI rates are an achievable goal has motivated and stimulated diverse groups of stakeholders, including public and private groups to develop policy tools and to mobilize their local constituents toward achieving this goal. Nevertheless, attributing reductions in CLABSI rates achieved by multifaceted quality improvement efforts solely to the use of checklists to ensure adherence with appropriate infection control practices is an easily made but crucial mistake. National CLABSI prevention is a shared responsibility and creating novel partnerships between government agencies, health care industry, and consumers is critical to making and sustaining progress in achieving the goals toward eliminating CLABSI. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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