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Deshmukh V.,John Deere Asia Technology Innovation Center | Sahay S.,John Deere Asia Technology Innovation Center | Agrawal B.,John Deere Technology Center India | Padhan U.,John Deere Technology Center India | El-Zein M.,John Deere Moline Technology Innovation Center
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2011

Induction hardening is an important heat treatment operation for a number of components, including shafts, crank-shafts, gears, and axles to improve wear and fatigue properties. These parts are widely used in automotive as well as off-highway vehicles. Induction hardening process comprises of two distinct steps, induction heating and quenching operation. It involves phenomenologically many overlapping complex processes such as temperature evolution, phase transformation, microstructure evolution and structural changes. Therefore, it is important to understand and quantify the aforementioned processes to avoid the residual stress and distortion in the component resulting from induction hardening. In the present work, a two step simulation methodology has been developed by coupling two commercial FEA softwares, based on electromagnetic and heat treatment simulations, respectively. This methodology enables accurate prediction of the temperature profile in the component during induction heating as well as the changes in temperature, phase transformation, microstructure, residual stress and distortion during the subsequent quenching step. In the present work, the coupled simulation exercise was carried out on a simple geometry (solid cylinder) as well as a complex geometry (ring gear). Thus, the obtained simulation results were validated with the experimental data and found to be in good agreement. The present study shows that an integrated methodology of solving induction hardening gives an opportunity to include large number of process information and providing precise prediction and thereby enables opportunity for process and design optimization. This presentation would detail on the overall approach, validation results and optimization possibility. Copyright © 2011 SAE International. Source


Shrivastava A.,John Deere Technology Center India | Srinivasa R.G.,John Deere Technology Center India | Vijay T.,John Deere Technology Center India | Bhatt N.,John Deere Technology Center India | Wesley J.,John Deere Technology Center India
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2011

An automated tool to enable users effectively select compatible loaders specific to tractors, virtually simulate all the possible positions loader could take while on work and to verify its load performance and stability through a user friendly interface. This can also give a competitive comparison between various tractor-loader-tire combinations. This automated tool, utilizes tool kit provided by commercially available CAD software. It gives a systematic step by step approach of selecting the compatible combinations of Tractor-Loader-Tires. The compatibility is defined through a pre-defined database having all the parameters of the existing tractors, Loaders and Tires. Then it calculates the loader performance characteristics and stability based on the commercially available software's calculation. The output report is generated as a PDF file with all the data, characteristic curves, and calculation results and assembled diagram of the complete assembly. ASABE standards are followed for establishing the key positions and force calculations. This automated tool could be one of the best customized tool for quick use of CAD models to generate spec of a machine earlier at design stage as it simplifies the selection process of selecting a perfect loader for the given tractor and tires. It also gives insight about the working and performance of loader. This tool will enhance the engineering designer team to simulate, test and forecast the specifications of a machine, useful for dealers to quickly share the information to the customers. This software goes one step ahead of brochures, as user can put many loaders on his tractor and see the actual performance and characteristics. A flexible database makes it very easy to update tractors and loader parameter information. This tool can be horizontally deployed to any platform of vehicles with simple modifications with much larger benefits. Copyright © 2011 SAE International. Source

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