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Hebecker D.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Pickel P.,John Deere European Technology Innovation Center
Fuel | Year: 2016

The emission behaviour of pure vegetable oils to be used as a fuel was researched using two vegetable oil fuel compatible tractors. The tractor engines were equipped with a common-rail and pump-line injection system. For the research eight different vegetable oils, one vegetable oil mixture and diesel fuel were used. Vegetable oils are basically triacylglycerides and can be characterised by the two structure indices average number of carbon atoms (AC) and average number of double bonds (ADB). The results show that both tractors can be operated with vegetable oils and diesel fuel at about the same level of efficiency. Specific test cycle emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX) tend to be higher while specific carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and particle mass (PM) emissions tend to be lower with the vegetable oils compared to diesel fuel.The emission behaviour of the two tractors was influenced by the type of vegetable oil used. The differences were dependent on the operation mode. At average and high load operation points the emissions of CO, HC and PM were at the same level, whereas the NOX emissions were rising with increasing ADB of the vegetable oils. At low load and idle operation the emissions of CO, HC and PM were rising with increasing unsaturation respectively increasing ADB of the vegetable oils. The observed increase of NOX at average and high load could not be recognized anymore at low load and idle and is even reversed for one tractor. This indicates deteriorated combustion with increasing unsaturation of the vegetable oils at idle and low load. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hebecker D.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Pickel P.,John Deere European Technology Innovation Center
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2015

The ignition and combustion behaviour of vegetable oils to be used as fuel in combustion engines was researched using a constant volume combustion chamber. The chosen vegetable oils were characterised using the two structure indices average number of carbon atoms AC and average number of double bonds ADB. The structure indices were derived from the composition of the analysed fatty acids. The performance of these two structure indices in estimating differences in fuel properties, such as density, net calorific value, elementary composition and surface tension, was shown. The structure indices were also used to explain ignition and combustion behaviour. Differences in ignition and combustion behaviour were primarily recognised in the ignition delay and the first phase of combustion (premixed combustion). No differences were observed between the vegetable oils in subsequent phases of combustion. The longer the ignition delay, the higher the share was of premixed combustion. Models for the prediction of the ignition delay were developed using ADB. The ignition delay rises with increasing ADB. Differences in AC had no significant impact on the ignition delay. Hence, vegetable oils with a high ignition quality are characterised by a low amount of double bonds. The developed models can be used for estimation of the ignition quality and combustion behaviour of unknown vegetable oils. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Kester C.,University of Hohenheim | Griepentrog H.W.,University of Hohenheim | Horner R.,Deutsche Landwirtschafts Gesellschaft E.V. DLG | Tuncer Z.,John Deere European Technology Innovation Center
Precision Agriculture 2013 - Papers Presented at the 9th European Conference on Precision Agriculture, ECPA 2013 | Year: 2013

Today, especially in Europe, operational efficiency of machines is an important product development goal because further capacity increases by size seem to be limited. Efficient semi-autonomous or autonomous machine operations are likely to be the next step in automation strategy in agriculture. The aim of this paper is to present descriptive results of survey responses that explored the perception of future advanced mechanization systems by German farmers including the likely adoption of automated farming machinery. In general, the farmers emphasized their high interest in advanced future techniques. This is confirmed already by their investment in fully automatic guidance systems. However, farmers are still sceptical about the use of autonomous machines on their farms in terms of reliability and safety.

Stohr M.,B.A.U.M. Consult GmbH | Pickel P.,John Deere European Technology Innovation Center
Landtechnik | Year: 2012

The use of biofuels in agricultural machinery is an option for complying with climate protection requirements that are presently discussed to be placed on manufacturers of mobile off-road machinery by the European Commission. A mathematical model has been developed that allows calculating greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) of biofuels for complex production paths in a straightforward, transparent manner and in pattern with the EU's Fuel Quality Directive (FQD). Therewith it has been shown that both rape seed and camelina sativa oil fuels can save more than 60 % GHGE. Key parameters have been identified and rules for a climate design of vegetable oil fuels have been formulated.

Blank S.,John Deere European Technology Innovation Center | Bartolein C.,Intelligent Group | Meyer A.,Intelligent Group | Ostermeier R.,Intelligent Group | Rostanin O.,Intelligent Group
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2013

In order to master the future challenges concerning increased demand for food and energy it is obvious that new methods are needed to boost productivity in a sustainable way. One key aspect to optimize agricultural processes and decision making is to derive effective means to acquire and share information along the value chain. In the past, data management in agriculture was dominated by proprietary, mostly Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) driven solutions with limited scope. To overcome the shortcomings associated with this, the German national joint research project iGreen was initiated in 2009 to enable convenient and efficient data sharing in a holistic and OEM independent way. As a project partner, John Deere focused on developing concepts and components for interconnecting machines among each other and with infrastructure nodes. In this paper the achieved results such as the infrastructure component referred to as the machine connector, the onboard data management and integration of mobile devices will be presented and evaluated through experiments focusing on data sharing in wheat and forage harvesting. The overall promising results indicate that in the future new applications focusing on optimizing processes can be enabled that will greatly improve the effectiveness and ease of agricultural production, especially fleet management and resource planning. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Blank S.,John Deere European Technology Innovation Center | Fohst T.,University of Kaiserslautern | Berns K.,University of Kaiserslautern
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2012

In this paper a low-level sensor fusion approach inspired by distributed decision making in swarms of social insects is proposed for application in agricultural machinery. In contrast to the state-of-the-art this approach is not dependent on a system or sensor model. Instead it rather employs a majority voting heuristic-based on the relative sensor distances. The ability to deal with very sparse system information and computational resources makes it ideally suited for on-board use in the agricultural domain. This is because it can be utilized to combine sensor data across machine or manufacturer borders. The most prominent and common example for this are tractor implement combinations. As shown in the simulations and experiments the fuzzy voter provides the ability to reliably identify poor measurements and eliminate conflicting data. This way a consistent data basis is provided that can be employed for higher level functions on the machines. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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