Johannesburg Zoo

Parkview, South Africa

Johannesburg Zoo

Parkview, South Africa
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Kanengoni A.T.,Johannesburg Zoo | Kanengoni A.T.,University of South Africa | Thomas R.,Agricultural Research Council Animal Production Institute | Gelaw A.K.,Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute | And 2 more authors.
FEMS Microbiology Letters | Year: 2017

An investigation of mortality of piglets through clinical signs, post-mortem, histopathology and bacteriological analyses revealed the causal organism to be Escherichia coli, mainly O149:K91:K88 which belongs to the enterotoxigenic biotypes. Molecular characterization and epidemiologic analysis elucidated it as shiga-toxin (ST) E. coli resistant to ampicillin, cefotaxime, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tylosin and neomycin. Conventional PCR results detected genes for ST-2, adhesin involved in diffuse adherence (AIDA-1) and F18 fimbriae virulence factors. Survival analyses and logistic regression of piglet mortality patterns showed that season of weaning, weaning weight and age of dam had significant influence on survival rate of piglets. Factors affecting pathogenicity of bowel edema and survival of affected piglets on a farm with persistent infection were reported for the first time. An association of E. coli O149:K91:K88 (F4) with clinical edema disease was made even though it has been reported in the past that this serotype does not produce ST. It was concluded that more stringent measures to mitigate the impact of the disease need to be targeted for spring and in older sows. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved.


Di Girolamo N.,Johannesburg Zoo | Di Girolamo N.,Centro Veterinario Specialistico | Lane E.P.,National Zoological Gardens of South Africa | Reyers F.,Digital Veterinary Diagnostics | Gardner B.R.,Johannesburg Zoo
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2014

A great white pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus) was referred for assessment of a subacute-onset, nonpainful swelling located in the pectoral region. Physical examination revealed a firm, round, well-circumscribed subcutaneous mass approximately 10 cm in diameter. Cytological evaluation of a fine needle aspirate of the mass was consistent with a mesenchymal tumor. The mass was excised, and a diagnosis of xanthomatosis was made based on histopathologic results. Avian xanthomatosis is a nonneoplastic condition of unknown etiology. Possible causes of this condition include trauma, metabolic or nutritional disorders. Similar lesions were not observed in the nine conspecifics that were fed the same diet and housed in the same enclosure. To our knowledge, this is the first report of xanthomatosis in the family Pelecanidae. © American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


Makungu M.,University of Pretoria | Du Plessis W.M.,University of Trinidad and Tobago | Barrows M.,Bristol Zoo Gardens | Koeppel K.N.,Johannesburg Zoo | Groenewald H.B.,University of Pretoria
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2013

An intact adult male 14.3-yr-old red panda (Ailurus fulgens) presented for health examination with a history of slowly progressing loss of body condition. Abdominal radiographs revealed a truncated abdomen with poor serosal abdominal detail and multiple areas of spondylosis with some collapsed intervertebral disc spaces. On computed tomography, multiple ovoid hypoattenuating lesions were seen in the left and right kidneys. Gross pathology and histopathology revealed multiple cystic lesions in the kidneys concurrent with pancreatic cysts on histopathology. To the best of the authors' knowledge, polycystic kidneys have not been reported in this species. © American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


Makungu M.,University of Pretoria | Makungu M.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Du Plessis W.M.,Ross University School of Medicine | Barrows M.,Bristol Zoo Gardens | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2016

The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. The natural distribution of the red panda is in the Himalayas and southern China. Thoracic diseases such as dirofilariasis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, tracheal obstruction, lung worm infestation, and pneumonia have been reported in the red panda. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of captive red pandas as a species-specific reference for routine health examinations and clinical cases. Right lateral (RL) and dorsoventral (DV) inspiratory phase views of the thorax were obtained in 11 adult captive red pandas. Measurements were made and ratios calculated to establish reference ranges for the mean vertebral heart score on the RL (8.34 ± 0.25) and DV (8.78 ± 0.34) views and the mean ratios of the caudal vena cava diameter to the vertebral body length above tracheal bifurcation (0.67 ± 0.05) and tracheal diameter to the width of the third rib (2.75 ± 0.24). The majority of animals (10/11) had 14 thoracic vertebrae, except for one animal that had 15 thoracic vertebrae. Rudimentary clavicles were seen in 3/11 animals. The ovoid, oblique cardiac silhouette was more horizontally positioned and elongated in older animals. A redundant aortic arch was seen in the oldest animal. The trachea was seen with mineralized cartilage rings in all animals. The carina was clearly seen in the majority of animals (10/11). Variations exist in the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of different species. Knowledge of the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of the red panda should prove useful for routine health examinations and in the diagnosis of thoracic diseases. © 2016 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


Makungu M.,University of Pretoria | Du Plessis W.M.,Ross University School of Medicine | Barrows M.,Bristol Zoo Gardens | Groenewald H.B.,University of Pretoria | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2016

The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is primarily distributed in south and southwestern Madagascar. It is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Various abdominal diseases, such as hepatic lipidosis, intestinal ulcers, cystitis, urinary tract obstruction, and neoplasia (e.g., colonic adenocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma), have been reported in this species. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy in captive ring-tailed lemurs to provide guidance for clinical use. Radiography of the abdomen and ultrasonography of the liver, spleen, kidneys, and urinary bladder were performed in 13 and 9 healthy captive ring-tailed lemurs, respectively, during their annual health examinations. Normal radiographic and ultrasonographic reference ranges for abdominal organs were established and ratios were calculated. The majority (12/13) of animals had seven lumbar vertebrae. The sacrum had mainly (12/13) three segments. Abdominal serosal detail was excellent in all animals, and hypaxial muscles were conspicuous in the majority (11/13) of animals. The spleen was frequently (12/13) seen on the ventrodorsal (VD) view and rarely (3/13) on the right lateral (RL) view. The liver was less prominent and well contained within the ribcage. The pylorus was mostly (11/13) located to the right of the midline. The right and left kidneys were visible on the RL and VD views, with the right kidney positioned more cranial and dorsal to the left kidney. On ultrasonography, the kidneys appeared ovoid on transverse and longitudinal views. The medulla was hypoechoic to the renal cortex. The renal cortex was frequently (8/9) isoechoic and rarely (1/9) hyperechoic to the splenic parenchyma. The liver parenchyma was hypoechoic (5/5) to the renal cortex. Knowledge of the normal radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of ring-tailed lemurs may be useful in the diagnosis of diseases and in routine health examinations. © Copyright 2016 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


Makungu M.,University of Pretoria | Groenewald H.B.,University of Pretoria | du Plessis W.M.,Ross University School of Medicine | Barrows M.,Clifton Inc. | Koeppel K.N.,Johannesburg Zoo
Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C: Anatomia Histologia Embryologia | Year: 2014

Summary: In family Lemuridae, anatomical variations exist. Considering its conservation status (near threatened) and presence of similarities between strepsirrhines and primitive animals, it was thought to be beneficial to describe the gross osteology and radiographic anatomy of the pelvis and hind limb of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) as a reference for clinical use and species identification. Radiography was performed in 14 captive adult ring-tailed lemurs. The radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from two adult animals. Additionally, computed tomography of the hind limbs was performed in one animal. The pelvic bone has a well-developed caudal ventral iliac spine. The patella has a prominent tuberosity on the cranial surface. The first metatarsal bone and digit 1 are markedly stouter than the other metatarsal bones and digits with medial divergence from the rest of the metatarsal bones and digits. Ossicles were seen in the lateral meniscus, inter-phalangeal joint of digit 1 and in the infrapatellar fat pad. Areas of mineral opacity were seen within the external genitalia, which are believed to be the os penis and os clitoris. Variations exist in the normal osteology and radiographic appearance of the pelvis and hind limb of different animal species. The use of only atlases from domestic cats and dogs for interpretative purposes may be misleading. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


PubMed | University of Pretoria, Ross University School of Medicine, Johannesburg Zoo and Clifton Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Anatomia, histologia, embryologia | Year: 2015

The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is a quadrupedal arboreal animal primarily distributed in the Himalayas and southern China. It is a species commonly kept in zoological collections. This study was carried out to describe the morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda evidenced by gross osteology, radiography and computed tomography as a reference for clinical use and identification of skeletons. Radiography of the pelvis and right hind limb was performed in nine and seven animals, respectively. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. Computed tomography of the torso and hind limb was performed in one animal. The pelvic bone had a wide ventromedial surface of the ilium. The trochlea of the femur was wide and shallow. The patella was similar to that seen in feline species. The medial fabella was not seen radiographically in any animal. The cochlea grooves of the tibia were shallow with a poorly defined intermediate ridge. The trochlea of the talus was shallow and presented with an almost flattened medial ridge. The tarsal sesamoid bone was always present. The lateral process of the base of the fifth metatarsal (MT) bone was directed laterally. The MT bones were widely spaced. The morphology of the pelvis and hind limb of the red panda indicated flexibility of the pelvis and hind limb joints as an adaptation to an arboreal quadrupedal lifestyle.


PubMed | University of Pretoria, Ross University School of Medicine, Johannesburg Zoo and Clifton Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Anatomia, histologia, embryologia | Year: 2015

There is limited information available on the morphology of the thoracic limb of the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta). This study describes the morphology of the thoracic limb of captive ring-tailed lemurs evidenced by gross osteology and radiography as a guide for clinical use. Radiographic findings of 12 captive ring-tailed lemurs are correlated with bone specimens of three adult animals. The clavicle is well developed. The scapula has a large area for the origin of the m. teres major. The coracoid and hamate processes are well developed. The lateral supracondylar crest and medial epicondyle are prominent. The metacarpal bones are widely spread, and the radial tuberosity is prominent. These features indicate the presence of strong flexor muscles and flexibility of thoracic limb joints, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Furthermore, an ovoid ossicle is always seen at the inter-phalangeal joint of the first digit. Areas of increased soft tissue opacity are superimposed over the proximal half of the humerus and distal half of the antebrachium in male animals as a result of the scent gland. Knowledge of the morphology of the thoracic limb of individual species is important for accurate interpretation and diagnosis of musculoskeletal diseases.


Koeppel K.N.,Johannesburg Zoo | Barrows M.,Bristol Zoo Gardens | Visser K.,Johannesburg Zoo
Theriogenology | Year: 2014

Red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) are threatened with extinction owing to habitat loss, exacerbated by their unique ecology and low fecundity. Regional breeding programs manage captive red panda populations. Recommendations not to breed may be made for various reasons, including genetic overrepresentation of certain individuals. No recommendations have been published on the use of contraception for red pandas. This article discusses the use of the GnRH analog deslorelin as a reversible method of contraception in both male and female pandas. The mean time from last contraception to conception was 3 years with a 4.6-mg deslorelin implant. The average dose of GnRH implant received was 1.09 mg/kg (range, 0.88-1.32). Males returned to breeding sooner than females. No reproductive side effects were noted with up to three consecutive annual GnRH implants. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Clifton Inc. and Johannesburg Zoo
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Theriogenology | Year: 2013

Red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) are threatened with extinction owing to habitat loss, exacerbated by their unique ecology and low fecundity. Regional breeding programs manage captive red panda populations. Recommendations not to breed may be made for various reasons, including genetic overrepresentation of certain individuals. No recommendations have been published on the use of contraception for red pandas. This article discusses the use of the GnRH analog deslorelin as a reversible method of contraception in both male and female pandas. The mean time from last contraception to conception was 3 years with a 4.6-mg deslorelin implant. The average dose of GnRH implant received was 1.09 mg/kg (range, 0.88-1.32). Males returned to breeding sooner than females. No reproductive side effects were noted with up to three consecutive annual GnRH implants.

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