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Parkview, South Africa

Makungu M.,University of Pretoria | Makungu M.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | du Plessis W.M.,University of Trinidad and Tobago | Barrows M.,Bristol Zoo Gardens | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Primatology | Year: 2014

Background: The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is a quadruped arboreal primate primarily distributed in south and south-western Madagascar. This study was carried out to describe the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of the ring-tailed lemur as a reference for clinical use. Methods: Radiography of the thorax was performed in 15 captive ring-tailed lemurs during their annual health examinations. Results: Normal radiographic reference ranges for thoracic structures were established and ratios were calculated, such as the vertebral heart score (VHS). The mean VHS on the right lateral and dorsoventral views was 8.92±0.47 and 9.42±0.52, respectively. Conclusions: Differences exist in the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of primates. Knowledge of the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of individual species is important and fundamental to assist in clinical cases and for accurate diagnosis of diseases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Makungu M.,University of Pretoria | Du Plessis W.M.,University of Trinidad and Tobago | Barrows M.,Bristol Zoo Gardens | Koeppel K.N.,Johannesburg Zoo | Groenewald H.B.,University of Pretoria
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2013

An intact adult male 14.3-yr-old red panda (Ailurus fulgens) presented for health examination with a history of slowly progressing loss of body condition. Abdominal radiographs revealed a truncated abdomen with poor serosal abdominal detail and multiple areas of spondylosis with some collapsed intervertebral disc spaces. On computed tomography, multiple ovoid hypoattenuating lesions were seen in the left and right kidneys. Gross pathology and histopathology revealed multiple cystic lesions in the kidneys concurrent with pancreatic cysts on histopathology. To the best of the authors' knowledge, polycystic kidneys have not been reported in this species. © American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source


Makungu M.,University of Pretoria | Du Plessis W.M.,University of Trinidad and Tobago | Barrows M.,Bristol Zoo Gardens | Koeppel K.N.,Johannesburg Zoo | Groenewald H.B.,University of Pretoria
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2012

Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in six adult captive caracals (Caracal caracal) to describe the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy. Consistently, the splenic parenchyma was hyperechoic to the liver and kidneys. The relative echogenicity of the right kidney's cortex was inconsistent to the liver. The gall bladder was prominent in five animals and surrounded by a clearly visualized thin, smooth, regular echogenic wall. The wall thickness of the duodenum measured significantly greater compared with that of the jejunum and colon. The duodenum had a significantly thicker mucosal layer compared with that of the stomach. Such knowledge of the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy of individual species is important for accurate diagnosis and interpretation of routine health examinations. Copyright © 2012 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source


Makungu M.,University of Pretoria | Groenewald H.B.,University of Pretoria | du Plessis W.M.,Ross University School of Medicine | Barrows M.,Clifton Inc. | Koeppel K.N.,Johannesburg Zoo
Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C: Anatomia Histologia Embryologia | Year: 2014

Summary: In family Lemuridae, anatomical variations exist. Considering its conservation status (near threatened) and presence of similarities between strepsirrhines and primitive animals, it was thought to be beneficial to describe the gross osteology and radiographic anatomy of the pelvis and hind limb of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) as a reference for clinical use and species identification. Radiography was performed in 14 captive adult ring-tailed lemurs. The radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from two adult animals. Additionally, computed tomography of the hind limbs was performed in one animal. The pelvic bone has a well-developed caudal ventral iliac spine. The patella has a prominent tuberosity on the cranial surface. The first metatarsal bone and digit 1 are markedly stouter than the other metatarsal bones and digits with medial divergence from the rest of the metatarsal bones and digits. Ossicles were seen in the lateral meniscus, inter-phalangeal joint of digit 1 and in the infrapatellar fat pad. Areas of mineral opacity were seen within the external genitalia, which are believed to be the os penis and os clitoris. Variations exist in the normal osteology and radiographic appearance of the pelvis and hind limb of different animal species. The use of only atlases from domestic cats and dogs for interpretative purposes may be misleading. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source


Di Girolamo N.,Johannesburg Zoo | Di Girolamo N.,Centro Veterinario Specialistico | Lane E.P.,National Zoological Gardens of South Africa | Reyers F.,Digital Veterinary Diagnostics | Gardner B.R.,Johannesburg Zoo
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2014

A great white pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus) was referred for assessment of a subacute-onset, nonpainful swelling located in the pectoral region. Physical examination revealed a firm, round, well-circumscribed subcutaneous mass approximately 10 cm in diameter. Cytological evaluation of a fine needle aspirate of the mass was consistent with a mesenchymal tumor. The mass was excised, and a diagnosis of xanthomatosis was made based on histopathologic results. Avian xanthomatosis is a nonneoplastic condition of unknown etiology. Possible causes of this condition include trauma, metabolic or nutritional disorders. Similar lesions were not observed in the nine conspecifics that were fed the same diet and housed in the same enclosure. To our knowledge, this is the first report of xanthomatosis in the family Pelecanidae. © American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

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