Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
Mainz, Germany

The Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz is a university in Mainz, Rhineland Palatinate, Germany, named after the printer Johannes Gutenberg. With approximately 36,500 students in about 150 schools and clinics, it is among the ten largest universities in Germany. Starting on 1 January 2005 the university was reorganized into 11 faculties of study. Wikipedia.

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BioNTech AG and Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Date: 2016-07-27

The invention relates to genetic products the expression of which is associated with cancer diseases. The invention also relates to the therapy and diagnosis of diseases in which the genetic products are expressed or aberrantly expressed, in particular cancer diseases.

Behl C.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2016

Human BAG (Bcl-2-associated athanogene) proteins form a family of antiapoptotic proteins that currently consists of six members (BAG1–6) all sharing the BAG protein domain from which the name arises. Via this domain, BAG proteins bind to the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), thereby acting as a co-chaperone regulating the activity of Hsp70. In addition to their antiapoptotic activity, all human BAG proteins have distinct functions in health and disease, and BAG3 in particular is the focus of many investigations. BAG3 has a modular protein domain composition offering the possibility for manifold interactions with other proteins. Various BAG3 functions are implicated in disorders including cancer, myopathies, and neurodegeneration. The discovery of its role in selective autophagy and the description of BAG3-mediated selective macroautophagy as an adaptive mechanism to maintain cellular homeostasis, under stress as well as during aging, make BAG3 a highly interesting target for future pharmacological interventions. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Kanold P.O.,University of Maryland University College | Luhmann H.J.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
Annual Review of Neuroscience | Year: 2010

The developing mammalian cerebral cortex contains a distinct class of cells, subplate neurons (SPns), that play an important role during early development. SPns are the first neurons to be generated in the cerebral cortex, they reside in the cortical white matter, and they are the first to mature physiologically. SPns receive thalamic and neuromodulatory inputs and project into the developing cortical plate, mostly to layer 4. Thus SPns form one of the first functional cortical circuits and are required to relay early oscillatory activity into the developing cortical plate. Pathophysiological impairment or removal of SPns profoundly affects functional cortical development. SPn removal in visual cortex prevents the maturation of thalamocortical synapses, the maturation of inhibition in layer 4, the development of orientation selective responses and the formation of ocular dominance columns. SPn removal also alters ocular dominance plasticity during the critical period. Therefore, SPns are a key regulator of cortical development and plasticity. SPns are vulnerable to injury during prenatal stages and might provide a crucial link between brain injury in development and later cognitive malfunction. © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 10.00M | Year: 2016

ENSAR2 is the integrating activity for European nuclear scientists who are performing research in three of the major subfields defined by NuPECC: Nuclear Structure and Dynamics, Nuclear Astrophysics and Nuclear Physics Tools and Applications. It proposes an optimised ensemble of Networking (NAs), Joint Research (JRAs) and Transnational Access Activities (TAs), which will ensure qualitative and quantitative improvement of the access provided by the current ten infrastructures, which are at the core of this proposal. The novel and innovative developments that will be achieved by the RTD activities will also assure state-of-the-art technology needed for the new large-scale projects. Our community of nuclear scientists profits from the diverse range of world-class research infrastructures all over Europe that can supply different ion beams and energies and, with ELI-NP, high-intensity gamma-ray beams up to 20 MeV. We have made great effort to make the most efficient use of these facilities by developing the most advanced and novel equipment needed to pursue their excellent scientific programmes and applying state-of-the-art developments to other fields and to benefit humanity (e.g. archaeology, medical imaging). Together with multidisciplinary and application-oriented research at the facilities, these activities ensure a high-level socio-economic impact. To enhance the access to these facilities, the community has defined a number of JRAs, using as main criterion scientific and technical promise. These activities deal with novel and innovative technologies to improve the operation of the facilities. The NAs of ENSAR2 have been set-up with specific actions to strengthen the communities coherence around certain resarch topics and to ensure a broad dissemination of results and stimulate multidisciplinary, application-oriented research and innovation at the Research Infrastructures.

Chirality is a fundamental property of life, making chiral sensing and analysis crucial to numerous scientific subfields of biology, chemistry, and medicine, and to the pharmaceutical, chemical, cosmetic, and food industries, constituting a market of 10s of billion , and growing. Despite the tremendous importance of chiral sensing, its application remains very limited, as chiroptical signals are typically very weak, preventing important biological and medical applications. Recently, the project-coordinating FORTH team has introduced a new form of Chiral-Cavity-based Polarimetry (CCP) for chiral sensing, which has three groundbreaking advantages compared to commercial instruments: (a) The chiroptical signals are enhanced by the number of cavity passes (typically ~1000); (b) otherwise limiting birefringent backgrounds are suppressed; (c) rapid signal reversals give absolute polarimetry measurements, not requiring sample removal for a null-sample measurement. Together, these advantages allow improvement in chiral detection sensitivity by 3-6 orders of magnitude (depending on instrument complexity and price). ULTRACHIRAL aims to revolutionize existing applications of chiral sensing, but also to instigate important new domains which require sensitivities beyond current limits, including: (1) measuring protein structure in-situ, in solution, at surfaces, and within cells and membranes, thus realizing the holy-grail of proteomics; (2) coupling to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for chiral identification of the components of complex mixtures, creating new standards for the pharmaceutical and chemical analysis industries; (3) chiral analysis of human bodily fluids as a diagnostic tool in medicine; (4) measurement of single-molecule chirality, by adapting CCP to microresonators, which have already demonstrated single-molecule detection; and (5) real-time chiral monitoring of terpene emissions from individual trees and forests, as a probe of forest ecology.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: REV-INEQUAL-04-2016 | Award Amount: 4.91M | Year: 2017

The overarching goal of the project is to understand the economic, social, institutional and policy factors that have shaped the impacts of free movement and public debates about it. It aims to help European policymakers develop policy responses that inspire public trust, ensure the fairness and sustainability of free movement, and maintain inclusive policies that reduce inequalities across the continent. First, the project will generate a deeper understanding of the nature and impacts of intra-EU mobility, focusing in particular on how countries institutional and policy environments shape the impacts of free movement on individuals, households, labour markets, public services and public finances. Second, it will assess how political and media narratives about intra-EU mobility are formed, focusing on the role of traditional and social media, political discourse, and influential participants in public debates. Third, it will assess the relationship between real and perceived impacts, examining the factors that drive realities and misperceptions about free movement and why these debates have unfolded in different ways across the EU. A consortium of researchers with deep understanding of policies and institutions across Europe will implement a multi-disciplinary research strategy. Cutting-edge research methods will range from content analysis based on machine-learning techniques to multi-wave panel and survey experiments to theoretical and empirical analysis of the role of institutions and norms in shaping free movement and public debates about it. The project combines qualitative and quantitative approaches, carefully integrating work packages to allow data and results to flow seamlessly between them. Policy specialists will develop concrete options for reforms. An experienced communications team will work with consortium members to develop accessible resources, ensuring wide reach to policymakers, media practitioners and influential stakeholders across Europe.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-14-2015 | Award Amount: 9.00M | Year: 2016

Eradicating minimal residual disease (MRD) in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is an area of high unmet medical need. AML is a deadly rare disease that affects both children and adults. Approximately 45% of younger AML patients who are treated will be cured, and in older patients (>60 years of age), 85% will relapse and die within 2 years. Immunotherapy has great potential for treating MRD and dendritic cell (DC) therapy is at the forefront of immunotherapy. The AML-VACCiN consortium takes this to the next level through clinical development of a highly-innovative DC vaccine - DCP-001 - that can be produced off-the-shelf and has a powerful preclinical and clinical profile. The aim is to vaccinate AML patients that have been brought into remission through standard induction or consolidation therapy, and to eradicate MRD and effectively reduce the risk of relapse. In a clinical Phase I/IIa study, the DCP-001 vaccine has already shown to be safe, non-toxic and capable of inducing an AML-targeted immune response. DCP-001 is designated as an orphan medicinal product in the EU. The AML-VACCiN consortium will advance the clinical development of the vaccine from early-stage (current status) towards proof of concept for safety and efficacy in a Phase IIb clinical study (intended outcome of this project). In addition, a biomarker program will be developed that enables more effective treatment monitoring, selective patient enrolment in future studies and ultimately personalised AML treatment. The deliverables resulting from this project can be used to assemble a data package to apply for conditional approval in Europe. AML-VACCiN is the orchestrated action of three innovative companies and internationally renowned top medical scientists representing nine European medical institutes. In line with the IRDiRC objectives, this public-private consortium can bring a powerful AML-vaccine very close to clinical practice.

Orus R.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
Annals of Physics | Year: 2014

This is a partly non-technical introduction to selected topics on tensor network methods, based on several lectures and introductory seminars given on the subject. It should be a good place for newcomers to get familiarized with some of the key ideas in the field, specially regarding the numerics. After a very general introduction we motivate the concept of tensor network and provide several examples. We then move on to explain some basics about Matrix Product States (MPS) and Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS). Selected details on some of the associated numerical methods for 1. d and 2. d quantum lattice systems are also discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Michel M.C.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology | Year: 2015

Storage dysfunction of the urinary bladder, specifically overactive bladder syndrome, is a condition that occurs frequently in the general population. Historically, pathophysiological and treatment concepts related to overactive bladder have focused on smooth muscle cells. Although these are the central effector, numerous anatomic structures are involved in their regulation, including the urothelium, afferent and efferent nerves, and the central nervous system. Each of these structures involves receptors for-and the urothelium itself also releases-many mediators. Moreover, hypoperfusion, hypertrophy, and fibrosis can affect bladder function. Established treatments such as muscarinic antagonists, β-adrenoceptor agonists, and onabotulinumtoxinA each work in part through their effects on the urothelium and afferent nerves, as do α1-adrenoceptor antagonists in the treatment of voiding dysfunction associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia; however, none of these treatments are specifically targeted to the urothelium and afferent nerves. It remains to be explored whether future treatments that specifically act at one of these structures will provide a therapeutic advantage. ©2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Walther A.,RWTH Aachen | Muller A.H.E.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013

Some of the advancements in the field of non-centrosymmetric Janus particles (JP) along with the synthesis, self-assembly behavior, physical properties, and applications, are discussed. Researchers focus on describing biological, biobased, and bioinspired JPs, access routes based on classical organic synthesis, along with macromolecular engineering and self-assembly of polymers, symmetry breaking at interfaces, selective growth of second compartments, and symmetry-breaking in confined volumes. The researchers also discuss related techniques using the break-up or patterning of side-by-side flown liquids, and miscellaneous techniques. They inform that significant progress has been made in diversifying synthetic strategies for the preparation of JPs over a period of time with the aim to include diverse functionalities, target inorganic or organic hybrid materials, along with finding ways toward a scale-up.

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