Giesemann A.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2010
Analysis of the stable isotope ratio of carbon (δ 13C) and α-linolenic acid (C18:3ω3) content in milk fat is a useful indicator of organic milk production. Referring to corresponding measurements, further analyses of stable isotope ratios were performed in 120 samples of conventionally and organically produced whole milk collected from German retailers during a period of 18 months. Conventional milk predominantly exhibited higher δ 15N values than organic milk, the latter of which never exceeded a maximum δ 15N threshold value of 5.50‰. Measurements of δ 34S did not differ significantly between organic and conventional milk. Because δ 13C, in general, is related to maize consumption, δ 13C in milk protein and δ 13C in milk fat were equally suited for authentication of organic milk. Thus, a high correlation (r = 0.99) was established between δ 13C in milk protein and lipids. Although occurring on different levels in organic and conventional milk, the relatively constant fractionation of carbon isotopes between protein and fat will allow for the advanced detection of adulteration in processed milk products, such as fraudulent combinations of organic milk fat and conventional skim milk. In addition to the strong correlation between C18:3ω3 and δ 13Cprotein (r = -0.91), a mutual dependence was identified between both δ 13Cprotein and δ 15N (r = 0.66) and C18:3ω3 and δ 15N (r = -0.61). Thus, multi-variable analyses are useful to increase robustness and reduce the number of exceptions in organic milk authentication. Future work involving multivariate statistical analysis can possibly further improve milk authentication in various respects including differentiating between brands of retail milk. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Roedl A.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment | Year: 2010
Purpose Ambitious targets for the use of renewable energy have recently been set in the European Union. To reach these targets, a large share of future energy generation will be based on the use of woody biomass. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in the cultivation of fast-growing tree species on agricultural land outside forests. Intensive crop production is always considered to harm the environment. The study explores the environmental burdens of the cultivation of fast-growing tree species on agricultural land and their subsequent energetic conversion in comparison to the fossil reference energy system. Methods Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology according to the ISO 14040 and 14044 is used. Input data were partly collected within the German joint research project AGROWOOD. Two utilization paths of short rotation poplar chips are analyzed: heat and power generation in a cogeneration plant and the production of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. Subsequently, the bioenergy systems are compared with their fossil references. Results and discussion The production and distribution of 1 oven dry tonne (odt) of short-rotation poplar chips require 432 MJ non-renewable energy. This equals an output-input ratio of 43:1, which includes all process steps from field preparation to road transport. Emissions of this energy use amount to a global warming potential of 38.4 kg CO2 eq odt-1, an acidification potential of 0.24 kg SO2 eq odt-1, and a eutrophication potential of 0.04 kg PO 4 eq odt-1. The greatest reductions of environmental impacts can be achieved by substituting power from lignite with cogenerated power from short-rotation coppice (SRC). Compared with the average German power generation mix GWP and AP of power generation from short rotation poplar chips are lower by 97% and 44%, respectively, while eutrophication potential is about 26% higher. FT diesel made from shortrotation poplar chips has an 88% lower global warming potential and a 93% lower acidification potential than fossil diesel. But, the eutrophication potential of FT diesel is twice as high as of fossil diesel. Conclusions It was found that even intensively produced wood from SRC can reduce environmental burdens if it is used for biofuel instead of fossil fuel. The utilization of the same amount of short-rotation poplar chips for heat and power production causes fewer environmental impacts than its use for FT diesel. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Fock H.O.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute
Marine Policy | Year: 2011
The implementation of the Natura 2000 network of marine protected areas under the European Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) has far-reaching implications for fisheries. To date, no consistent approaches have been established to develop fisheries management measures in Natura 2000 areas, and no European member state has proposed any fisheries measures to the European Commission for consideration under the Common Fisheries Policy. Four key issues are identified in the relationship between fisheries and Natura 2000, and the possible role that the future Common Fisheries Policy could have in this context is discussed. There is a need (1) for a consistent framework to integrate scientific advice, stakeholder participation and management in the management process; (2) for a common methodology to prioritize conservation objectives, in particular for transboundary protected areas; (3) for a consistent framework to assess and evaluate fisheries impacts to define management measures; and (4) to define spatial properties for fisheries. The results from the projects EMPAS (Germany), FIMPAS (the Netherlands), and INDEMARES (Spain) and the Dogger Bank case are discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE.2013.1.4-10 | Award Amount: 2.60M | Year: 2014
The on-going negotiations on Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreements between the EU, Armenia, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine, the accession of Russia to the World Trade Organisation in 2012 and the establishment of a Customs Union between Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan in 2011 are expected to boost trade relations between the European Union and its Eastern Neighbours. The aim of AGRICISTRADE is to accompany these developments by analysing the potential impact of these trade agreements and by delivering insights on the potential developments of the food, feed and biomass sectors in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. AGRICISTRADE contributes to the analysis of the present situation, the potentials and the projection of future agri-food developments. This project will improve the understanding of present agricultural and food processing sectors in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) by collecting and evaluating statistical data and related policies. Based on its multidisciplinary expertise the AGRICISTRADE consortium investigates agro-ecological, socio-economic and institutional bottlenecks to exploit the agricultural potentials in CIS and shows the implications of policy interventions for development perspectives of a number of selected supply chains. AGRICISTRADE improves existing biophysical and economic modelling tools enhancing their empirical base and regional representation, and develops a framework for assessing agricultural production and demand potentials in CIS. Modelling tools will be used to quantify and analyse the impact of market developments, technology and policy scenarios on CIS agricultural production, demand and trade, specifically addressing the implications of these scenarios for EU agri-food sector. The project results contribute to a fact-based and well-informed dialogue among EU policy makers on possible impacts of a DCFTA on CIS agricultural development potentials.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-11a-2014 | Award Amount: 3.63M | Year: 2015
The AquaSpace project has the goal of providing increased space for aquaculture to allow increased production. Following the call, we will achieve this by identifying the key constraints experienced by aquaculture development in a wide range of contexts and aquaculture types, taking into account all relevant factors and advised by a Reference User Group. We will then map these constraints against a wide variety of tools/methods that have already been developed in national and EU projects for spatial planning purposes, including some that have been designed specifically for aquaculture. In the freshwater sector only, we will also consider ecosystem services provided by aquaculture that are relevant to integrated catchment planning and management. At 16 case study sites having a variety of scales, aquaculture at different trophic levels with different environmental interactions and most importantly with a range of key space-related development constraints as defined by local stakeholders, we will assess appropriate tools using a common process so as to facilitate synthesis and comparison. This case study approach will generate a large amount of information and is allocated about a third of the projects resources. The project will develop the outcomes leading to a set of evaluated tools for facilitating the aquaculture planning process by overcoming present constraints. This information will be presented on an interactive web-based platform with tailored entry points for specific user types (e.g. planners, farmers, public) to enable them to navigate to the tools most appropriate to their application. The knowledge and information gained during this process will be developed into an on-line module at Masters Level which will also be developed into a short CPD course aimed at aquaculture planning professionals. The public will be engaged by an innovative school video competition and a vehicle to ensure project legacy will be established.