Jogeva Plant Breeding Institute

Jõgeva, Estonia

Jogeva Plant Breeding Institute

Jõgeva, Estonia
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Runno-Paurson E.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Hannukkala A.O.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Koppel M.,Jogeva Plant Breeding Institute | Williams I.H.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Mand M.,Estonian University of Life Sciences
American Journal of Potato Research | Year: 2013

Altogether 365 isolates of Phytophthora infestans were sampled from potatoes propagated from seed potatoes of high (multiplied for two years in open field after meristem phase) and low (commercial certified seed multiplied for several consecutive years in open field) phytosanitary quality at different phases of epidemic progress during the growing seasons of 2001-2007 from field plots at two experimental institutes in Estonia, North-East Europe. High or low phytosanitary quality of seed potatoes had no effect on mating type ratio or response to metalaxyl in populations of P. infestans isolated from these two different groups of potato material. In contrast, the incidence of certain virulence factors, as well as the diversity of pathotypes, was very high in populations collected from potatoes propagated from low-quality seed in comparison to those from high-quality seed. The incidence of A2 mating type and fully metalaxyl sensitive strains was statistically significantly higher at the epidemic outbreak than later during epidemic progress. The incidence of most virulence factors and overall pathotype diversity were not affected by the temporal progress of the epidemic. Rare virulence factors 5 and 9 were more frequent at the outbreak of the epidemic and declined in the population during the course of epidemic. © 2013 Potato Association of America.

Rubiales D.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Avila C.M.,IFAPA Centro Alameda del Obispo | Sillero J.C.,IFAPA Centro Alameda del Obispo | Hybl M.,AGRITEC Ltd. | And 3 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2012

Ascochyta blight incited by Ascochyta fabae is a widespread disease severely damaging faba bean (Vicia faba) production. Insufficient resistance is available in faba bean cultivars. In an attempt to identify new sources of resistance a germplasm collection of 484 V. faba accessions was screened for resistance to A. fabae under field conditions; stability of resistance of the 19 most resistant accessions was tested in a multi-location experiment in Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany and Spain over two field seasons. Although complete resistance was not found, six accessions showed interesting levels of incomplete resistance. Genotype. ×. environment (G. ×. E) interaction accounted for 42% of the sum of squares of the multi-environment evaluation, revealing instability of the phenotypic expression across environments. Accessions L-831818, V-26 and V-958 stand out for their consistent resistance, being the most resistant and stable across environments. Accessions V-255, V-1020, V-1085 and V-1117 displayed good resistance, but lower stability, with V-1020, V-1085 and V-1117 being more suitable for Córdoba (Mediterranean mega-environment), and V-255 more suitable for Hohenlieth, Jõgeva and Sumperk (Continental mega-environment). © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Olle M.,Jogeva Plant Breeding Institute | Ngouajio M.,Michigan State University | Siomos A.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Zemdirbyste | Year: 2012

The aim of the review is to present an overview of the effects of mineral soil, inorganic and organic growing media on the growth, development, yield and quality of vegetables grown under greenhouse conditions. The findings from the literature suggest that the yield of various vegetables tends to be higher for the plants grown in various growing media compared to those grown in the soil. A number of authors have reported that dry matter, sugar, soluble solids, vitamins and carotenoids content in tomatoes; acidity and taste have better marks when grown in soilless culture systems compared to soil. Only very few authors have indicated that soil culture could increase acidity, dry matter, carotenoids and sugar content in tomatoes compared to soilless culture systems. Growth and development of vegetables are enhanced, when plants are grown in inorganic media compared to organic ones. For yield enhancement several authors have recommended growing vegetables in inorganic media (rockwool, sand) rather than organic media. Furthermore, there is a growing body of studies indicating the benefit of mixing organic and inorganic components for vegetable growing media with improved performance in greenhouse production. In most cases, the addition of compost did not change the yields of vegetables grown on organic media. Also it is difficult to draw broad conclusions on the impact of various organic substrates on the chemical composition of vegetables based on the information in the literature. Some inorganic substrates can influence growing medium so that vegetables grow faster, but that may depend on substrate used. As a substrate, zeolite had advantages over perlite, as it increased growth of crisp-head lettuces. As observed with organic media, it is difficult to draw general conclusions on the impact of inorganic media on the chemical composition of vegetables. Results vary with the crop and the chemical composition and availability of elements of the inorganic substrate.

Mander U.,University of Tartu | Jarveoja J.,University of Tartu | Maddison M.,University of Tartu | Soosaar K.,University of Tartu | And 3 more authors.
GCB Bioenergy | Year: 2012

We studied the impact of reed canary grass (RCG) cultivation on greenhouse gas emission in the following sites of an abandoned peat extraction area in Estonia: a bare soil (BS) site, a nonfertilized Phalaris (nfP) plot, a fertilized Phalaris (fP) plot, and a natural bog (NB) and a fen meadow (FM) as reference areas. The C balance and global warming potential (GWP) were estimated by measuring CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions and aboveground and belowground biomass variations. The high CO2 flux from the nfP and fP sites and the low CO2 emission from the BS are due to the enhancement of mineralization by plant growth on planted sites and inhibited mineralization by the recalcitrant C of BS. The NB site emitted 24 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1, whereas the almost zero CH4 emission from the Phalaris plots and the BS site was due to the high S concentration in peat, which probably inhibited methanogenesis. The N2O flux varied from <0.1 kg on the Phalaris plots and the NB to 2.64 kg N2O ha-1 yr-1 on the FM. The highest yield of RCG was obtained in autumn (13.9 t and 8.0 t dw ha-1 on the fP and nfP, respectively). By spring, the biomass yield on the fP and nfP plot was 12.7 and 7.9 t dw ha-1, respectively. The C balance of nfP and fP plots was negative in comparison to the BS (-3322, -5983, and 2504 kg CO2 ha-1 yr-1, respectively). This indicates that the cultivation of RCG transformed them from a net source of C into a net sink of C. The GWP for the fP and nfP sites was -5981 and -3885 kg CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1, respectively. The BS site had a total GWP of 2544 kg CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Runno-Paurson E.,Estonian University of Life Sciences | Runno-Paurson E.,Jogeva Plant Breeding Institute | Remmel T.,University of Tartu | Ojarand A.,Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

The characteristics of populations of Phytophthora infestans from organic farms, small conventional farms and large conventional farms were determined from isolates collected in northern Estonia in 2004 and 2005. For the population as a whole 41% were A2; all virulence factors to the 11 R genes from Solanum demissum were found; and more than 70% had high or intermediate resistance to metalaxyl. Isolates from organic farms tended to have more complex pathotypes than isolates from either large or small conventional farms, but there was a higher proportion of metalaxyl resistant isolates from large conventional farms than from small conventional farms or from organic farms. © 2010 KNPV.

Olle M.,Jogeva Plant Breeding Institute | Williams I.H.,Estonian University of Life Sciences
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

This review aims to describe the nature of effective microorganisms (EM) and how EM influence the growth, yield, quality, and protection of vegetable plants. EM comprise a mixture of live natural cultures of microorganisms isolated from fertile soils that are used to improve crop production. EM technology was developed over 40 years ago by Dr. Tero Higa in Japan. How EM act and interact in the soil-plant environment to suppress plant pathogens and disease, to conserve energy, to solubilise soil minerals, to aid the balance and ecology of soil microbes, and to improve photosynthetic efficiency and biological nitrogen fixation are described. In 70% of published studies, it was concluded that EM had a positive effect on the growth of vegetables, while, in the other 30%, they had no significant influence. In this investigation, among 22 reports on the effects of EM on the yields of vegetables, 84% were positive, 4% were negative, and 12% showed no significant influence. It is concluded that EM can improve the quality and yield of vegetables by reducing the incidence of pests and diseases, and by protecting against weeds, thereby contributing to sustainable agriculture.

Olle M.,Jogeva Plant Breeding Institute | Williams I.H.,Estonian University of Life Sciences
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of organic fertilizers on the chemical content (nitrates, calcium, vitamin C, dry matter and crude ash) of onions. Four fertilization treatments were compared: 1. Phytopellets standard, 2. Malzkeim pellets, 3. Organisher Baumdünger, 4. without fertilization (control). The dry matter content of the onions did not differ significantly with different organic fertilizers. Different organic fertilizers did not significantly affect the crude ash content of onions although fertilized onions had a greater crude ash content than unfertilized onions. The content of nitrates in onions did not differ significantly with use of different organic fertilizers although fertilized onions had a greater nitrate content than unfertilized onions. Different organic fertilizers did not significantly affect the calcium content in onions. The content of vitamin C in onions did not differ significantly with the use of different organic fertilizers, although fertilized onions had a greater vitamin C content than unfertilized onions. The conclusion of the investigation was that organic fertilizers did not affect the chemical quality of onions statistically. The crude ash, nitrates and C-vitamin was lowest in the unfertilized control treatment. © 2014, International Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved.

Olle M.,Jogeva Plant Breeding Institute | Virsile A.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry
Agricultural and Food Science | Year: 2013

The aim of this study is to present the light emitting diode (LED) technology for greenhouse plant lighting and to give an overview about LED light effects on photosynthetic indices, growth, yield and nutritional value in green vegetables and tomato, cucumber, sweet pepper transplants. The sole LED lighting, applied in closed growth chambers, as well as combinations of LED wavelengths with conventional light sources, fluorescent and high pressure sodium lamp light, and natural illumination in greenhouses are overviewed. Red and blue light are basal in the lighting spectra for green vegetables and tomato, cucumber, and pepper transplants; far red light, important for photomorphogenetic processes in plants also results in growth promotion. However, theoretically unprofitable spectral parts as green or yellow also have significant physiological effects on investigated plants. Presented results disclose the variability of light spectral effects on different plant species and different physiological indices.

Olle M.,Jogeva Plant Breeding Institute
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B: Soil and Plant Science | Year: 2012

The objective of this investigation was to examine the effect of restriction of growing medium volume on the level of tipburn in chervil and leaf lettuce. Chervil: The plants were grown in different sizes of rock wool cubes: a. 31 cm 3, b. 64 cm 3, c. 135 cm 3. The incidence of tipburned leaves decreased by increasing the size of cubes. Leaf lettuce: Plants were grown in different sizes of pots: 12 cm pots with capacity of 0.6 L and 8 cm pots with capacity of 0.25 L. The incidence of tipburned leaves increased by decreasing pot size. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Narits L.,Jogeva Plant Breeding Institute
Agronomy Research | Year: 2011

Rapeseed is a major oil-yielding crop, ranking third place after soybeans and oil palm in the world. Rapeseed contains as average 36-38% crude protein and content of anti- nutritional compounds, among which glucosinolates have received the major attention. The object of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the nitrogen rate and different application times to the crude protein and glucosinolate content of winter turnip rape. The trials were carried out at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute in the 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10 growing seasons. Ammonium sulfate (nitrogen content 21%, sulphur 24%) was used as top- fertilizer. Three different nitrogen rates, 120, 140 and 160 kg N ha -1 and three different application times were used: A) once at the beginning of spring growth (oilseed rape growing code 26), B) A + when the main stalk was 10 cm (code 33), C) B + start of flowering (code 60) (a total of nine different variants) in equal portions. The results indicate that the quantity of the fertilizer has not as strong an impact as application time on the glucosinolate content. The lowest glucosinolate content was obtained from the variant of one N application. The highest protein content was obtained from the variant of three times split-N.

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