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Vaghasiya J.,Jodhpur National University | Sheth N.,Saurashtra University | Bhalodia Y.,University of Mumbai | Manek R.,University of Mumbai
Regulatory Peptides | Year: 2011

This study was designed to investigate the possible effect of sitagliptin on renal damage induced by renal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) in diabetic rats. T2DM in rats was induced by the administration of nicotinamide (230. mg/kg, i.p.), 15. min prior to a single dose of streptozotocin (65. mg/kg, i.v.). In vivo renal I/R was performed in both T2DM and normal rats. Each protocol comprised ischemia for 30. min followed by reperfusion for 24. h and a treatment period of 14. days before induction of ischemia. Sitagliptin treated diabetic rats that underwent renal I/R demonstrated significant decrease in the serum concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (p<. 0.01), urea nitrogen (p<. 0.01) and creatinine (p<. 0.001) compared to renal I/R in diabetic rats. Lipid peroxidation, xanthine oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide level in renal tissue were significantly (p<. 0.05, p<. 0.001, p<. 0.01, p<. 0.05 respectively) decreased after renal I/R in sitagliptin treated rats compared to diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes like glutathione (p<. 0.05), glutathione peroxidase (p<. 0.001), superoxide dismutase (p<. 0.05) and catalase (p<. 0.001) were significantly increased after renal I/R in sitagliptin treated diabetic rats compared to non treated diabetic rats. The typical DNA laddering was observed when renal I/R performed in diabetic rats, which indicates cell apoptosis. Sitagliptin treated rats demonstrated a decrease in DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. Furthermore, renal histopathology preserved in sitagliptin treated rats verified protection against renal I/R in diabetes. The results of present investigation established sitagliptin treatment attenuated renal damage induced by renal I/R in diabetic rats. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Patil S.,Jodhpur National University
Oral health and dental management | Year: 2012

To determine the nature, incidence, and severity of oral manifestations that occur in chronic renal failure (CRF) in patients attending two hospitals in North Karnataka, in comparison with healthy, disease-free controls. The study was carried out with 200 individuals (100 CRF patients and 100 controls). The case group was randomly selected from a population of CRF patients whose glomerular filtration rate (GFR) values were between 15-30 mL/min; the control group was selected in the same age group with normal GFR and was apparently disease free. The patients were asked about dry mouth, taste and halitosis, and mucosal pain, and were examined for oral changes such as tongue coating, pallor, ulceration and enamel hypoplasia. The results obtained from the study were then compared with various other similar studies. The most common oral findings in the CRF patients were dry mouth (91%), pallor (87%), altered taste (42%), and halitosis (34%). CRF patients showed significantly more oral changes than those in the control group. These changes could be attributed to metabolic disturbances due to renal failure. In the patients studied, the impact of CRF on the oral cavity was evidenced by significant oral changes, which pointed to an inter-relationship between oral health and CRF. Further studies are required to relate the extent of such changes with disease progression.

Upadhyaya M.,Jodhpur National University
ICECT 2011 - 2011 3rd International Conference on Electronics Computer Technology | Year: 2011

This paper contains the details of how one can develop the simple compiler for procedural lanaguage using Lex (Lexical Analyzer Generator) and YACC (Yet Another Compiler-Compiler). Lex tool helps write programs whose control flow is directed by instances of regular expressions in the input stream. It is well suited for editor-scripts type transformations and for segmenting input in preparation for a parsing routine. Lex tool source is the table of regular expressions and corresponding program fragments. The table is translated to a program which reads an input stream, copying it to an output stream and partitioning the input into strings which match the given expressions. On the other hand YACC tool receives input of the user grammar. Starting from this grammar it generates the C source code for the parser. YACC invokes Lex to scan the source code and uses the tokens returned by Lex to build a syntax tree. With the help of YACC and Lex tool one can write their own compiler. © 2011 IEEE.

Vaghani S.S.,Jodhpur National University | Patel M.M.,Kalol Institute of Pharmacy
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to develop a pH-sensitive chitosan/polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) based controlled drug release system for clarithromycin. The hydrogels were synthesized by cross-linking chitosan and PVP blend with glutaraldehyde to form a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN). These semi-IPNs were studied for their content uniformity, swelling index (SI), mucoadhesion, wettability, in vitro release and their release kinetics. The hydrogels showed more than 97% content of clarithromycin. These hydrogels showed high swelling and mucoadhesion under acidic conditions. The swelling may be due to the protonation of a primary amino group on chitosan. In acidic condition, chitosan would be ionized, and adhesion could have occurred between the positively charged chitosan and the negatively charged mucus. In the alkaline condition, less swelling and mucoadhesion was noticed. In vitro release study revealed that formulation containing chitosan (2% w/v) and PVP (4% w/v) in the ratio of 21:4 showed complete drug release after 12h. Release profile showed that all the formulations followed non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. The cross-linking and compatibility of clarithromycin in the formulation was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD) study, which confirmed proper formation of semi-IPN and stability of clarithromycin in the formulations. The surface morphology of semi-IPN was studied before and after dissolution in simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.2) which revealed pores formation in membrane after dissolution. The results of study suggest that semi-IPNs of chitosan/PVP are potent candidates for delivery of clarithromycin in acidic environment. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Mandal H.K.,Jodhpur National University
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research | Year: 2014

Temperature increase was recently considered as a serious water pollutant. Discharge of heated water from the thermal power plants is the major source of thermal pollution. The impact they cause on the ecology of the receiving stream is beyond imagination. Waste water is sewage, storm water, and water that have been used for various purposes around the community. Unless properly treated, wastewater can harm public health and the environment. Most communities generate wastewater from both residential and nonresidential sources. The temperature of waste water is usually higher than that of the water supply because of the addition of warm water from domestic use. Wastewater temperature is important for two reasons: (1) biological processes are temperature dependent and (2) chemical reactions and reaction ratio and aquatic life are all temperature sensitive. Wastewater temperature also affects receiving waters. Hot water, for example, which is a byproduct of many manufacturing process, can be a pollutant. When discharged in large quantities, it can raise the temperature of receiving streams locally and disrupt the natural balance of aquatic life. The acidity or alkalinity of wastewater affects both treatment and the environment. The pH is actually the measure of the inverse concentration of hydrogen ions and in a logarithmic scale. As pH values lower, it indicates increasing acidity; while a high pH indicates alkalinity (pH of 7 is neutral). The pH of wastewater needs to remain between 6 and 9 to protect beneficial organisms. Acid, cleaning agents and other substances that alter pH can inactivate treatment processes when they enter wastewater. Accurate measurement and reporting of pH data has been long-standing problem due to the effects of temperature. As increase in any solutions' temperature is cause a decrease in its viscosity and an increase in the mobility of its ions in solution. An increase in temperature may also lead to an increase in the number of ions in solution due to the dissociation of molecules (this is particularly true for weak acids and bases). As pH is as measure of the hydrogen ion concentration, a change in the temperature of a solution will be reflected by a subsequent change in pH. So the present study, it is to know the effect of temperature on pH of wastewater of Phagwara Tehsil of Punjab. © Research India Publications.

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