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Vaghani S.S.,Jodhpur National University | Patel M.M.,Kalol Institute of Pharmacy
Current Drug Discovery Technologies | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to develop a pH-sensitive chitosan/polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) based controlled drug release system for repaglinide. The hydrogels were synthesised by crosslinking chitosan and PVP blend with glutaraldehyde to form a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN). These semi-IPNs were studied for their content uniformity, swelling index (SI), mucoadhesion, wettability, in vitro release and their release kinetics. The hydrogels showed more than 95% loading of repaglinide. These hydrogels showed high swelling and mucoadhesion under acidic conditions. The swelling was found due to the protonation of a primary amino group on chitosan. In acidic condition chitosan was ionized, and adhesion occurred between the positively charged chitosan and the negatively charged mucus. In the physiological condition less swelling was noticed. In vitro release study revealed that formulation containing chitosan (2% w/v) and PVP (4% w/v) in the ratio of 14:6 w/w showed complete drug release after 12h. Release profile showed that all the formulations followed non-fickian diffusion mechanism (diffusion coupled with swelling). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis revealed proper crosslinking of polymer and formation of semi-IPN as well as presence of drug in the formulation. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Powder X-Ray Diffraction (p-XRD) study revealed the presence of repaglinide in crystalline form in the formulations. The surface morphology of semi-IPN was studied before and after dissolution in Simulated Gastric Fluid (SGF, pH 1.2) which indicated generation of open channellike structure in hydrogel after dissolution. The results of study suggest that semi-IPNs of Chitosan/PVP are potent candidates for delivery of repaglinide in acidic environment. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.


Vaghani S.S.,Jodhpur National University | Patel M.M.,Kalol Institute of Pharmacy
Carbohydrate Research | Year: 2012

In the present study, carboxymethyl chitosan was prepared from chitosan, crosslinked with glutaraldehyde and evaluated in vitro as a potential carrier for colon targeted drug delivery of ornidazole. Ornidazole was incorporated at the time of crosslinking of carboxymethyl chitosan. The chitosan was evaluated for its degree of deacetylation (DD) and average molecular weight; which were found to be 84.6% and 3.5 × 10 4 Da, respectively. The degree of substitution on prepared carboxymethyl chitosan was found to be 0.68. All hydrogel formulations showed more than 85% and 74% yield and drug loading, respectively. The swelling behaviour of prepared hydrogels checked in different pH values, 1.2, 6.8 and 7.4, indicated pH responsive swelling characteristic with very less swelling at pH 1.2 and quick swelling at pH 6.8 followed by linear swelling at pH 7.4 with slight increase. In vitro release profile was carried out at the same conditions as in swelling and drug release was found to be dependant on swelling of hydrogels and showed biphasic release pattern with non-fickian diffusion kinetics at higher pH. The carboxymethylation of chitosan, entrapment of drug and its interaction in prepared hydrogels were checked by FTIR, 1H NMR, DSC and p-XRD studies, which confirmed formation of carboxymethyl chitosan from chitosan and absence of any significant chemical change in ornidazole after being entrapped in crosslinked hydrogel formulations. The surface morphology of formulation S6 checked before and after dissolution, revealed open channel like pores formation after dissolution. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 26.


Shrivastava A.,Jodhpur National University | Gupta V.B.,Jodhpur National University
Scientia Pharmaceutica | Year: 2012

The current study was carried out with an attempt to separate similarly structured title drugs by liquid chromatography. Spectrophotometric techniques were generally insufficient under these conditions because of the spectral overlapping of drugs with similar functional groups. The pharmaceutical drugs prazosin, terazosin, and doxazosin contain the same parent quinazoline nucleus, thus making it especially difficult to separate the former two drugs because of their very similar structures. A simple and sensitive method for the routine determination of these drugs in pharmaceutical formulations was attempted. We found that the mobile phase consisting of A: ACN-diethylamine (0.05 ml), B: methanol, and C: 10 mM Ammonium acetate separated these drugs effectively. Separations were carried out on a new Kromasil C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5.0 μm) at 254 nm wavelength. The calibration curve was found to be linear in the range of 2-500 μg/ml. The stated method was then validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, and accuracy. Additionally, the proposed method reduced the duration of the analysis. © Shrivastava and Gupta; licensee Österreichische Apotheker-Verlagsgesellschaft m. b. H., Vienna, Austria.


Vaghani S.S.,Jodhpur National University | Patel M.M.,Kalol Institute of Pharmacy
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to develop a pH-sensitive chitosan/polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) based controlled drug release system for clarithromycin. The hydrogels were synthesized by cross-linking chitosan and PVP blend with glutaraldehyde to form a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN). These semi-IPNs were studied for their content uniformity, swelling index (SI), mucoadhesion, wettability, in vitro release and their release kinetics. The hydrogels showed more than 97% content of clarithromycin. These hydrogels showed high swelling and mucoadhesion under acidic conditions. The swelling may be due to the protonation of a primary amino group on chitosan. In acidic condition, chitosan would be ionized, and adhesion could have occurred between the positively charged chitosan and the negatively charged mucus. In the alkaline condition, less swelling and mucoadhesion was noticed. In vitro release study revealed that formulation containing chitosan (2% w/v) and PVP (4% w/v) in the ratio of 21:4 showed complete drug release after 12h. Release profile showed that all the formulations followed non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. The cross-linking and compatibility of clarithromycin in the formulation was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD) study, which confirmed proper formation of semi-IPN and stability of clarithromycin in the formulations. The surface morphology of semi-IPN was studied before and after dissolution in simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.2) which revealed pores formation in membrane after dissolution. The results of study suggest that semi-IPNs of chitosan/PVP are potent candidates for delivery of clarithromycin in acidic environment. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Patil S.,Jodhpur National University
Oral health and dental management | Year: 2012

To determine the nature, incidence, and severity of oral manifestations that occur in chronic renal failure (CRF) in patients attending two hospitals in North Karnataka, in comparison with healthy, disease-free controls. The study was carried out with 200 individuals (100 CRF patients and 100 controls). The case group was randomly selected from a population of CRF patients whose glomerular filtration rate (GFR) values were between 15-30 mL/min; the control group was selected in the same age group with normal GFR and was apparently disease free. The patients were asked about dry mouth, taste and halitosis, and mucosal pain, and were examined for oral changes such as tongue coating, pallor, ulceration and enamel hypoplasia. The results obtained from the study were then compared with various other similar studies. The most common oral findings in the CRF patients were dry mouth (91%), pallor (87%), altered taste (42%), and halitosis (34%). CRF patients showed significantly more oral changes than those in the control group. These changes could be attributed to metabolic disturbances due to renal failure. In the patients studied, the impact of CRF on the oral cavity was evidenced by significant oral changes, which pointed to an inter-relationship between oral health and CRF. Further studies are required to relate the extent of such changes with disease progression.


Upadhyaya M.,Jodhpur National University
ICECT 2011 - 2011 3rd International Conference on Electronics Computer Technology | Year: 2011

This paper contains the details of how one can develop the simple compiler for procedural lanaguage using Lex (Lexical Analyzer Generator) and YACC (Yet Another Compiler-Compiler). Lex tool helps write programs whose control flow is directed by instances of regular expressions in the input stream. It is well suited for editor-scripts type transformations and for segmenting input in preparation for a parsing routine. Lex tool source is the table of regular expressions and corresponding program fragments. The table is translated to a program which reads an input stream, copying it to an output stream and partitioning the input into strings which match the given expressions. On the other hand YACC tool receives input of the user grammar. Starting from this grammar it generates the C source code for the parser. YACC invokes Lex to scan the source code and uses the tokens returned by Lex to build a syntax tree. With the help of YACC and Lex tool one can write their own compiler. © 2011 IEEE.


This bi-layer matrix tablets were formulated to show quick onset of action as well as prolonged effect of drug in the body. Lornoxicam is weak acidic in nature, so its release from SR delivery systems is limited to the lower gastrointestinal tract which consequently leads to a delayed onset of its analgesic action. To provide complete drug release that starts in the stomach to rapidly alleviate the painful symptoms and continues in the intestine to maintain protracted analgesic effect, use basic pH modifiers like sodium bicarbonate & magnesium oxide to create basic micro-environmental pH inside&give a favorable acidic condition for tablets to release the drug. Different types and levels of hydrophilic matrixing agents, like HPMC K4 & HPMC K 15 were used to control the release of the drugs. The UV Spectroscopy, particle size and FTIR analysis of pure drug were performed. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation. In-Vitro drug release study was carried out for different formulations.


Patil S.,Jodhpur National University
Oral health and dental management | Year: 2012

The relationship between the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and oral lichen planus (OLP) remains a controversial subject for clinicians. Many studies aimed at studying the association between HCV and OLP have been conducted over the years. Geographical variations have been shown to be a major factor influencing this association. This study aimed at determining whether such an epidemiological relationship exists in an Indian population. One hundred and thirty clinically and histopathologically confirmed OLP patients (46 males and 84 females, mean age 43.47±10.48 years) and 130 age- and gender matched controls were examined for serological evidence of chronic hepatic disease, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HCV seropositivity. The blood samples were collected from both the groups and subjected to biochemical analysis for total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase enzymes using a semi-automated biochemistry analyser. HBsAg and antibody to HCV were tested by ELISA. Statistical analysis was calculated using Levene's test and the independent t-test. No significant difference between serum levels of total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase was observed between both groups. All patients with OLP had normal liver function. None of the patients with OLP or the control subjects had antigens for HBsAg and HCV. Patients with OLP did not have any evidence of chronic liver disease or HBV or HCV infection. The exact mechanism that exists between the association of HCV and OLP still remains unclear and this study rejects the hypothesis that established a co-relation between OLP and HCV infection.


Joshi P.,Jodhpur National University
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2011

MANET stands for "Mobile Ad Hoc Network." Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. Each node operates not only as an end system, but also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves into a network. These nodes change position frequently. A MANET is a type of ad hoc network that can change locations and configure itself on the fly. Because MANETS are mobile, they use wireless connections to connect to various networks To accommodate the changing topology special routing algorithms are needed. There is no single protocol that fits all networks perfectly. The protocols have to be chosen according to network characteristics, such as density, size and the mobility of the nodes. There is still ongoing research on mobile ad hoc networks and the research may lead to even better protocols and will probably face new challenges. Current goal of this paper is to find out the security Issues and their Countermeasures that are adopted on the Network Layer. Network security extends computer security, thus all the things in computer security are still valid, but there are other things to consider as well. Computer security is defined as follows: -Broadly speaking, security is keeping anyone from doing things you do not want them to do to, with, or from your computers or any peripherals In MANET, the nodes also function as routers that discover and maintain routes to other nodes in the network. Establishing an optimal and efficient route between the communicating parties is the primary concern of the routing protocols of MANET. Any attack in routing phase may disrupt the overall communication and the entire network can be paralyzed. Thus, security in network layer plays an important role in the security of the whole network. A number of attacks in network layer have been identified and studied in security research. An attacker can absorb network traffic, inject themselves into the path between the source and destination and thus control the network traffic flow. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Shah C.P.,Jodhpur National University
Nepalese journal of ophthalmology : a biannual peer-reviewed academic journal of the Nepal Ophthalmic Society : NEPJOPH | Year: 2011

Dacryocystitis is an infection and an inflammation of the lacrimal sac and is an important cause of ocular morbidity in India. Objective: To isolate and identify the bacterial patterns associated with dacryocystitis and to determine their antibacterial sensitivity pattern. A total of 100 lacrimal swab materials were subjected to bacterial analysis. Children less than 8 years were not included in the study. The chances of chronic dacryocystitis were more than acute dacryocystitis and were commonly found in the age group of 41 - 50 years. Females were more vulnerable to the infection than males. From a 100 samples a total of 122 bacterial isolates were obtained. Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were equally distributed in the study. The most common organism associated with the infection was S. aureus. The antibacterial sensitivity showed more effectiveness towards Gram positive isolates than Gram negative isolates. Both Gram positive and Gram negative organism are associated with with chronic dacryocystitis. Knowledge of the bacteriology of dacryocystitis and the susceptibility of the bacteria towards antibiotics will better guide a clinician in the choice of the medication for the most appropriate drug for the treatment. © NEPjOPH.

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