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Hagiya Y.,Keio University | Kamata S.,Keio University | Mitsuoka S.,Keio University | Okada N.,Keio University | And 9 more authors.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology | Year: 2015

The key mechanism for acetaminophen hepatotoxicity is cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent formation of N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine, a potent electrophile that forms protein adducts. Previous studies revealed the fundamental role of glutathione, which binds to and detoxifies N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine. Glutathione is synthesized from cysteine in the liver, and N-acetylcysteine is used as a sole antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Here, we evaluated the potential roles of transsulfuration enzymes essential for cysteine biosynthesis, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH), in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity using hemizygous (Cbs+/- or Cth+/-) and homozygous (Cth-/-) knockout mice. At 4h after intraperitoneal acetaminophen injection, serum alanine aminotransferase levels were highly elevated in Cth-/- mice at 150mg/kg dose, and also in Cbs+/- or Cth+/- mice at 250mg/kg dose, which was associated with characteristic centrilobular hepatocyte oncosis. Hepatic glutathione was depleted while serum malondialdehyde accumulated in acetaminophen-injected Cth-/- mice but not wild-type mice, although glutamate-cysteine ligase (composed of catalytic [GCLC] and modifier [GCLM] subunits) became more activated in the livers of Cth-/- mice with lower Km values for Cys and Glu. Proteome analysis using fluorescent two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed 47 differentially expressed proteins after injection of 150mgacetaminophen/kg into Cth-/- mice; the profiles were similar to 1000mgacetaminophen/kg-treated wild-type mice. The prevalence of Cbs or Cth hemizygosity is estimated to be 1:200-300 population; therefore, the deletion or polymorphism of either transsulfuration gene may underlie idiosyncratic acetaminophen vulnerability along with the differences in Cyp, Gclc, and Gclm gene activities. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Shimizu Y.,Gunma University | Dobashi K.,Gunma University | Fueki N.,Jobu Hospital for Respiratory Diseases | Fueki M.,Jobu Hospital for Respiratory Diseases | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents | Year: 2011

Omalizumab is an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody that was proven effective for the treatment of severe asthma. IgE plays a central role in allergic asthma, and an anti-allergic effect of omalizumab has been confirmed in terms of its impact on Th2 cytokines. The objective of the present study is to determine the influence of omalizumab on clinical parameters and circulating immuoregulatory cytokines. Patients with severe allergic asthma were enrolled and given four months of omalizumab therapy. Changes of symptoms and other parameters were assessed, including the asthma control test (ACT) score, morning peak expiratory flow (PEF), peripheral eosinophil count, total serum IgE, and pulmonary function tests. The use of corticosteroids and short-acting bronchodilators, as well as the number of unscheduled hospital visits, were monitored. Circulating levels of cytokines were analyzed with a multiplex cytokine immunoassay in patients with or without omalizumab therapy. Asthma symptoms (evaluated by the ACT score and morning PEF) improved with omalizumab treatment, while total IgE was elevated. Use of corticosteroids and short-acting bronchodilators and the number of unscheduled hospital visits for exacerbation of asthma were all reduced by omalizumab treatment. The level of macrophage inflammatory protein 1-δ (MIP1-δ) was significantly reduced after omalizumab therapy and was high in patients without omalizumab. IL-16 also tended to decrease with omalizumab therapy. Both MIP1-δ and IL-16 decreased as asthma improved over the 4-month period of omalizumab therapy. These findings suggest that omalizumab may act via IgE-mediated immunoregulation of MIP1-δ and IL-16. Copyright © by BIOLIFE, s.a.s. Source

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