Alīgarh, India
Alīgarh, India
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Shah D.,Thomas Jefferson University | Mahajan N.,Panjab University | Sah S.,JNMC | Nath S.K.,Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation | Paudyal B.,Thomas Jefferson University
Journal of Biomedical Science | Year: 2014

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease whose etiology remains largely unknown. The uncontrolled oxidative stress in SLE contributes to functional oxidative modifications of cellular protein, lipid and DNA and consequences of oxidative modification play a crucial role in immunomodulation and trigger autoimmunity. Measurements of oxidative modified protein, lipid and DNA in biological samples from SLE patients may assist in the elucidation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the oxidative stress-related damage, the prediction of disease prognosis and the selection of adequate treatment in the early stage of disease. Application of these biomarkers in disease may indicate the early effectiveness of the therapy. This review is intended to provide an overview of various reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed during the state of disease and their biomarkers linking with disease. The first part of the review presents biochemistry and pathophysiology of ROS and antioxidant system in disease. The second part of the review discusses the recent development of oxidative stress biomarkers that relates pathogenesis in SLE patients and animal model. Finally, this review also describes the reported clinical trials of antioxidant in the disease that have evaluated the efficacy of antioxidant in the management of disease with ongoing conventional therapy. © 2014 Shah et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC) Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a Reproductive tract infection affecting millions of women worldwide. In developing countries, the prevalence of this infection has increased in recent years. To study the pharmacoepidemological perspective of Vaginal candidiaisis, it was compared to the other abnormal vaginal discharge diseases. 221 Vaginal candidiasis patients were studied out of 350 abnormal vaginal discharge patients. Itching was the most presenting symptom, while incidence was high in 21-35 age group. The majority of the patients belonged to low socioeconomic strata. Vaginal Candidiasis was predominantly seen more in patients with pregnancy. Fluconazole 150 mg once was the main treatment given while in topical Clotrimazole and Miconazole vaginal pesseries were used which relieved the symptoms. Multivitamin tablets (19%) and Ranitidine (6.87%) were prescribed for symptomatic relief.

Saoji V.,JNMC | Lade N.R.,JNMC | Gadegone R.,JNMC | Bhat A.,Dr. Saojis Skin Clinic
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology | Year: 2016

Background: Warts are known to clear spontaneously with the development of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) to the virus. Purified protein derivative (PPD) of tuberculin bacilli has been used as a non-specific stimulant of CMI to achieve this outcome. Aim: To study the effect of PPD in the treatment of warts. Methods: Patients with difficult-to-treat warts were selected for immunotherapy. Each patient received 2.5 TU of PPD intralesionally in a few warts. A total of four sessions were given at 2 weekly intervals and patients were followed up for 6 months after the last dose. Results: Sixty-one patients were recruited of which 55 completed 6 months follow up and were available for analysis. Of these, 25 had verruca vulgaris, 18 had verruca plana and 12 had plantar warts. Forty two (76%) patients showed complete clearance after four sessions while the remaining 13 (24%) patients were non-responders. One patient developed a recurrence after total clearance during the follow-up period. Adverse effects were erythema, edema and pain at the site of injections. Limitations: As this was an uncontrolled trial, there is no comparison with a non-intervention group. Also, a Mantoux test was not done due to practical difficulties. Conclusion: Immunotherapy with PPD is helpful in the treatment of cutaneous warts. © 2016 Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology.

Taksande A.,JNMC | Lakhkar B.,JNMC
Shiraz E Medical Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Dengue Fever (DF) is an emergent disease in India. It is endemic in some parts of country and contributes annual outbreaks of dengue. Aims: To study the knowledge regarding dengue and the preventive measures practiced by the rural population attending a hospital. Setting: The Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi Meghe, Wardha is the rural medical college located in Maharashtra. Study Design: The study design was a descriptive cross-sectional study concerning Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of DF prevention among the people in Rural Hospital of Central India. Study population: The population in this study was residents of Wardha Districts, Maharashtra State, India, who were living there for at least one year. A 410 adults (aged 18 years and above) were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire regarding their knowledge, attitude and practices about DF. Results: 43.91 % respondents belonged to the age group of 30 - 44 years, 84.15 % respondents were married and 31.21 % respondents were high school certificate (31.21 %). 76.58 % respondent knew that the vector for dengue is a mosquito. Whereas 47.8 % respondents knew that human to human spread occurs in dengue and mainly transmitted by mosquito bites. Around 60.48 % of them were aware of fever as the presenting symptom. With regards to the knowledge of the preventive measures, respondents were generally aware of mosquito coils/liquid (57.08 %) and spraying (35.12 %). 74.14 % respondents knew about breeding places of mosquitoes. 94.64 % respondents strongly agreed and agreed that dengue is a serious illness. Only 17.06 % respondents strongly agreed and agreed that they are at risk of getting dengue whereas 62.92 % was not sure about the risk. Common preventive practices that were prevalent in the respondents were use of mosquito coils/liquid (45.12 %); cleaning the house (28.30 %) and mosquito spray (23.42 %). Important sources of information about DF were from television (59.75 %) followed by Friends/relatives (47.80 %). Conclusion: The DF remains a public health problem in this area and the people need more understanding of the disease. Our findings highlight the need for further information, education and communication programs. Preventive strategies are the only means of controlling the DF. © 2012, Shiraz E Medical Journal, Shiraz, Iran. All rights reserved.

Naaz S.,Jamia Hamdard University | Ozair E.,JNMC
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2014

Dexmedetomidine is an alpha 2 adrenergic receptor agonist, even ten times more selective than clonidine. It is a very versatile drug in anaesthesia practice, finding place in increasing number of clinical scenarios and is no more limited to intensive care unit (ICU) sedation. It is analgesic, has anaesthetic sparing effect, sympatholytic property, useful in other procedural sedation and also has cardiovascular stabilizing property. It reduces delirium and preserves respiratory function which adds benefits to its uses. The aim of this review is to make awareness of its role in present anaesthesia and discuss its limitations at the same time. © 2014, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All Rights Reserved.

Ahmad I.,JNMC | Choudhary R.,JNMC
Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery | Year: 2013

Ameloblastoma or adamantinoma is a benign odontogenic tumour arising in facial bones mostly in mandible. There are different modalities of treatment for ameloblastoma viz. chemotherapy, radiation therapy, curettage and liquid nitrogen but surgical resection or enucleation remains the most definitive treatment for this condition. After surgical excision mandibular defect can be reconstructed by non vascularised bone graft or free tissue transfer. we are presenting a detailed study of 50 patients in which mandible was reconstructed with non vascularised split rib graft after surgical resection of ameloblastoma. This is easy, less time consuming and requires no expertise with excellent results. © 2012 Association of Otolaryngologists of India.

Gupta A.,JNMC | Singhal S.,JNMC
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2011

Tuberculosis of central nervous system can be present in many different clinical and radiological patterns with disseminated or miliary brain tuberculomas as a rare presentation. Multiple central nervous system tuberculoma is commonly associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Tuberculomas develop following haematogenous dissemination of bacilli from an infection elsewhere in the body, usually lung. Here we describe a case of immunocompetent host with a past history of pulmonary tuberculosis, presenting with headache and generalised weakness, and later was diagnosed as a case of multiple tuberculoma brain. © 2011 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.

Katralli J.,J.N.M.C | Goudar S.S.,J.N.M.C
Asian Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2012

Purpose: Judo is a complex sport where different anthropological parameters determine performance. Judo, as a sport is not well known in India. There is evident lack of data concerning the anthropological determinants of judo players. This study was conducted to determine the anthropometric profile and Special Judo Fitness levels of judokas. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 31 judo players. Anthropometric profile was assessed by measuring height, weight, body mass index, body circumferences at seven sites, seven site skin fold thickness and body fat percentage as per standard accepted protocol. Special Judo Fitness Test - a specific test to evaluate the judo athlete's physical condition was applied. Statistical analysis done using Student's unpaired 't' test and correlation by Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Out of 31 judo players 20 had ≤5 yrs of judo practice (A group) and 11 >5 yrs of judo (B group). Anthropometric findings of both the judo groups were the same. Body fat has negative correlation (r =-0.690, P<0.05) with performance in SJFT. Observations during and after special judo fitness test were also similar. Conclusions: Long term training has a minimal effect on anthropometry. Judo athletes of similar age when submitted to the same training type tend to show equal performance in the game and fitness levels after certain years of training. We also confirm existence of negative correlation between body fat and performance. © 2012 by Sports Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, All rights reserved.

Bano I.,J.N.M.C | Noor N.,J.N.M.C | Parveen S.,J.N.M.C
Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences | Year: 2012

A heterotopic pregnancy is a rare complication of pregnancy, in which both extra-uterine and intrauterine gestation occur simultaneously. We hereby report a case of ruptured heterotopic pregnancy presenting at 6weeks of gestation and was managed with immediate laparatomy. The intrauterine pregnancy course was uneventful with delivery of a healthy baby at term by Caesarean section.

Ahmad A.,JNMC | Singhal U.,JNMC | Hossain M.M.,JNMC | Islam N.,JNMC | Rizvi I.,JNMC
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2013

Context: Oxidative Stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates. Aims: 1. To compare the levels of Malondialdehyde (MDA), in hypertensive and normotensive subjects. 2. To compare the levels of the antioxidant enzymes, namely, Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) in hypertensive and normotensive subjects. 3. To determine the correlation between the MDA levels and the mean arterial pressure (MAP) among hypertensive subjects. 4. To determine the correlation between the antioxidant enzyme levels and MAP among the hypertensive subjects and to evaluate the effect of 6 months of antihypertensive therapy with a tight blood pressure control on the MDA levels. Methods and Material: In this cross sectional study, 25 normotensive and 40 hypertensive subjects were recruited. The hypertensive subjects were further subdivided into three subgroups: Prehypertensives, Stage I hypertensives and Stage II hypertensives. All the subjects underwent a blood pressure measurement and the markers of oxidative stress in their sera were estimated. The subjects of Stage I hypertension and Stage II hypertension were given antihypertensive treatment for 6 months and their blood pressures were tightly regulated and brought to the normotensive state. After 6 months, the estimations of the markers of oxidative stress were done again. Results: The MDA levels were significantly increased in the stage I and stage II hypertension groups as compared to those of the control group (p<0.05). The anti-oxidant enzymes (SOD, Catalase and GPX) were significantly decreased (p<0.05) in the prehypertension and in the stage I and stage II hypertension groups as compared to those in the control group. There was a significant increase in the levels of the antioxidant enzymes after 6 months of a tight regulation and bringing of the blood pressure to the normotensive state by giving antihypertensive therapy. Conclusion: On comparison of the present study with other studies in which the use of antioxidants were found to be ineffective in the blood pressure reduction, it can be concluded that oxidative stress is an effect rather than a cause of essential hypertension.

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