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Jabalpur, India

Bairwa S.K.,Jn Agricultural University | Tripathi M.K.,Jn Agricultural University | Kushwah S.S.,Jn Agricultural University | Baghel B.S.,Jn Agricultural University | Tiwari S.,Jn Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2012

A rapidly and maintainable embryogenic suspension culture of Cucumis melo was accomplished by transferring embryogenic callus, obtained from mature cotyledon and hypocotyl explants in liquid medium. The cultures obtained were flooded with clumps of globular embryos with very little non-embryogenic tissues. The number and size of somatic embryos/clump was measured to quantify growth of embryogenic tissues under given conditions. The suspensions were sub-cultured every 15 days by adding 10 ml of the old suspension to 40 ml of fresh medium. Initiation and proliferation of such embryogenic suspension cultures depend upon the genotype and various exogenous plant growth regulators fortified to the culture medium at different levels. Culture medium MS2D (MS + 2.0 mg l-1 2,4-D) proved superior for callus induction from cultured mature cotyledon and hypocotyl segments. For the establishment of suspension cultures, the liquid MS medium fortified with 2.0 mg l-1 2,4-D and 0.5 mg l-1 bAP was found to be the most effective. For subsequent subcuturing, reduced level of 2,4-D at 1.0 mg l-1 in combination with 0.5 mg l-1 bAP promoted faster development of somatic embryos. Frequent and efficient plantlet regeneration occurred on MS medium with 0.5 mg l-1 each of NAA, bAP and kinetin. Among the four genotypes tested Pusa Madhuras followed by Local cultivar responded better as compared to other genotypes. Regenerated plants were found to be phenotypically normal and true-to-the-type. Source

Tiwari S.,Jn Agricultural University | Kumar S.,Jn Agricultural University | Gontia I.,Jn Agricultural University
Asia-Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and niger (Guizotia abyssinica) are minor oilseed crops of subtropical countries. The growing area and production of these crops is declining in the traditional areas due to several factors and not much work has been done to overcome these. Biotechnological approaches may be employed in these neglected crops to overcome the slow pace of improvement. In sesame and niger it is now possible to obtain haploid plants through anther culture which principally results in a time gain of several years in releasing a variety. Interspecific hybridization supported by the embryo rescue technique is another interesting supplementary strategy that may help to create new genetic variation. Molecular markers are proving a most useful tool for sesame and niger breeding programs, helping to identify new germplasm and elite cultivars as well as for marker assisted selection (MAS). Foreign genes can be transferred by means of genetic engineering. Necessary pre-requisites for alien gene transfer by applying genetic engineering for oilseed improvement are principally available, i.e., efficient vectors and transformation systems have been elaborated and a number of target genes have meanwhile been isolated. Hence, the transfer of relevant genes, especially for seed oil quality, to cultivated species can be anticipated in the near future. Here, we briefly review the current status of sesame and niger improvement through strategies including tissue culture technology, molecular marker-assisted breeding, functional genomics and genetic transformation. Source

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