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Goel G.,National Dairy Research Institute | Goel G.,Maharishi Markandeshwar University | Kumar A.,JMIT Institute of Engineering and Technology | Beniwal V.,Maharishi Markandeshwar University | And 3 more authors.
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation | Year: 2011

Tannins, present in various foods, feeds and forages, have anti-nutritional activity; however, presence of tannase in microorganisms inhabiting rumen and gastrointestinal tract of animals results in detoxification of these tannins. The present investigation was carried out to study the degradation profile of tannins by Enterococcus faecalis and to purify tannase. E. faecalis was observed to degrade tannic acid (1.0% in minimal media) to gallic acid, pyrogallol and resorcinol. Tannase from E. faecalis was purified up to 18.7 folds, with a recovery of 41.7%, using ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-150. The 45 kDa protein had an optimum activity at 40 °C and pH 6.0 at substrate concentration of 0.25 mM methyl gallate. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Behare P.V.,National Dairy Research Institute | Singh R.,National Dairy Research Institute | Tomar S.K.,National Dairy Research Institute | Nagpal R.,JMIT Institute of Engineering and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

Sixty-four exopolysaccharide-producing thermophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from traditionally made Indian fermented milk products. On the basis of morphological and biochemical tests, these isolates were identified as the species of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus genera. Initial screening for technological attributes revealed that Streptococcus thermophilus IG16 was a promising isolate, and produced both capsular and ropy polysaccharides at the concentration of 211mg/L. Exopolysaccharide produced by IG16 was a heteropolysaccharide containing rhamnose and galactose in a ratio of 5.3:1 and had a molecular weight of 3.3 × 104 Da. Use of IG16 as a starter culture controlled whey separation and improved viscosity, flavor, consistency, and color and appearance of lassi. Use of IG16 resulted in lassi having optimal acidity, less syneresis, high viscosity, and better scores for flavor, consistency, and color and appearance. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association.

Kumar M.,National Dairy Research Institute | Verma V.,National University of Singapore | Nagpal R.,JMIT Institute of Engineering and Technology | Kumar A.,P.A. College | And 3 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to investigate the chemopreventive effect of probiotic fermented milk and chlorophyllin on aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1) induced hepatocellular carcinoma. In vivo trials were conducted on 200 Wistar rats allocated to eight groups. Rats in the positive control group were given intraperitoneal injection of aflatoxin B 1 at 450μg/kg body weight twice a week for 6weeks. The rats were sacrificed and dissected at 25th week of the experiment, and comet assay was carried out in hepatic cells to assess the genotoxicity or DNA damage. The tumour incidence was decreased by approximately one-third than AFB 1 control group. The expression of c-myc bax, bcl-2, cyclin D1, p53 and rasp-21 genes was also studied. A significant (P<0.05) reduction in DNA damage was observed in probiotic fermented milk with chlorophyllin group as compared to aflatoxin B 1 control group. The c-myc, bcl-2, cyclin D1 and rasp-21 level was found to be highest in AFB 1 control group as compared to the treatment group. The results advocate the enhanced protective potential of probiotic fermented milk and chlorophyllin against AFB 1-induced molecular alterations in hepatic cells during carcinogenesis. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Nagpal R.,National Dairy Research Institute | Nagpal R.,JMIT Institute of Engineering and Technology | Puniya A.K.,National Dairy Research Institute | Sehgal J.P.,National Dairy Research Institute | Singh K.,National Dairy Research Institute
Mycoscience | Year: 2011

In the present study, anaerobic fungi were isolated from different ruminants and non-ruminants; i. e., cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, wild bluebulls, elephants, deer, and zebras; and were identified as Anaeromyces, Orpinomyces, Caecomyces, Piromyces, and Neocallimastix sp., based on their morphological characteristics. These isolates possessed significant in vitro hydrolytic enzyme activities; however, an isolate of Caecomyces sp. from elephant was found to exhibit maximum activity, i. e., filter paper cellulase (Fpase; 21.4 mIU/ml), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCase; 15.1 mIU/ml), cellobiase (37.4 mIU/ml), and xylanase (26.0 mIU/ml). Besides, this isolate also showed the significantly highest ability to digest plant cell-wall contents in vitro. The in vitro dry matter digestibility increased from 45.1 to 48.9% after 48 h of incubation, and the plant cell-wall contents, in terms of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber, decreased from 64.2 to 61.3% and from 31.3 to 29.6%, respectively. These results indicate that such fibrolytic ruminal fungal strains are prevalent in wild herbivores such as elephants, as well as in other ruminants and non-ruminants, and could be exploited as microbial feed additives for improved nutrition and productivity in domesticated ruminants. © 2010 The Mycological Society of Japan and Springer.

Zerbinati N.,Medical Center | Marotta F.,ReGenera Research Group for Aging Intervention | Nagpal R.,JMIT Institute of Engineering and Technology | Singh B.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Rejuvenation Research | Year: 2014

We assessed the effect of a sturgeon eggs-based nutraceutical (LD-1227) versus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the ultrastructure of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) aortas. Sixty SHR were randomly divided into three groups that were fed (1) rat chow, (2) rat chow plus 10mg of EPA/DHA, or (3) rat chow plus 10mg of LD-1227, for 18 weeks. Afterward, aortas of these rats were used for blind measurements of the thickened intima area and examination by electron microscopy. Control SHR showed an expanded subendothelial space and leukocyte infiltration of the intima that were reduced in LD-1227-fed rats (p<0.05) and less in EPA/DHA group. Transmission electron microscopy showed endothelial alteration with severe subcellular injury and, unlike the EPA/DHA-group, LD-1227-treated rats displayed a significant reduction in endothelial alteration with severe subcellular injury (p<0.05). These data suggest that LD-1227 has stronger arterial protective properties and deserves further investigation in view of a preventive medicine strategy. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014.

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