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Papua, Indonesia

Manguin S.,IRD Montpellier | Bangs M.J.,Jl. Kertajasa | Pothikasikorn J.,Mahidol University | Chareonviriyaphap T.,Kasetsart University
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2010

Malaria and lymphatic filariasis are two of the most common mosquito-borne parasitic diseases worldwide which can occur as concomitant human infections while also sharing common mosquito vectors. This review presents the most recent available information on the co-transmission of human Plasmodium species and Wuchereria bancrofti by Anopheles mosquitoes. Important biological and epidemiological aspects are also described including the lifecycle of each parasite species and their specificities, the geographical biodiversity of each pathogen and their vectors where the parasites are co-endemic, and biological, environmental and climatic determinants influencing transmission. The co-transmission of each disease is illustrated from both a global perspective and a country level using Thailand as a study case. Different diagnostic methods are provided for the detection of the parasites in biological samples ranging from traditional to more recent molecular methods, including methodologies employing concomitant detection assays of W. bancrofti and Plasmodium spp. parasites. The relevant issues of combined malaria and Bancroftian filariasis control strategies are reviewed and discussed. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Tisgratog R.,Kasetsart University | Tananchai C.,Kasetsart University | Juntarajumnong W.,Kasetsart University | Tuntakom S.,Kasetsart University | And 3 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2012

Background: Host feeding patterns of Anopheles minimus in relation to ambient environmental conditions were observed during a 2-year period at Tum Sua Village, located in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, in western Thailand, where An. minimus is found in abundance and regarded as the most predominant malaria vector species. Detailed information on mosquito behavior is important for understanding the epidemiology of disease transmission and developing more effective and efficient vector control methods. Methods: Adult mosquitoes were collected every 2 months for two consecutive nights from 1800 to 0600 hrs. Three collection methods were used; indoor human-landing collections (HLC), outdoor HLC, and outdoor cattle-bait collections (CBC). Results: A total of 7,663 female Anopheles mosquitoes were collected of which 5,392 were identified as members of 3 different species complexes, the most prevalent being Anopheles minimus complex (50.36%), followed by Anopheles maculatus complex (19.68%) and Anopheles dirus complex (0.33%). An. minimus s.s. comprised virtually all (> 99.8 percent) of Minimus Complex species captured. Blood feeding behavior of An. minimus was more pronounced during the second half of the evening, showing a slight preference to blood feed outdoors (∼60%) versus inside structures. Significantly (P<0.0001) more An. minimus were collected from human-baited methods compared with a tethered cow, indicating a more anthropophilic feeding behavior. Although a significant difference in total number of mosquitoes from the HLC was recorded between the first and second year, the mean biting frequency over the course of the evening hours remained similar. Conclusions: The Human landing activity of An. minimus in Tum Sua Village showed a stronger preference/ attraction for humans compared to a cow-baited collection method. This study supports the incrimination of An. minimus as the primary malaria vector in the area. A better understanding of mosquito behavior related to host preference, and the temporal and spatial blood feeding activity will help facilitate the design of vector control strategies and effectiveness of vector control management programs in Thailand. © 2012 Tisgratog et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Suwansirisilp K.,Kasetsart University | Visetson S.,Kasetsart University | Prabaripai A.,Kasetsart University | Tanasinchayakul S.,Kasetsart University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2013

The behavioral effects of four essential oils extracted from orange peel (Citrus aurantium L.), cinnamon leaf (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl), citronella grass (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt), and clove flower [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry] were evaluated against two medically important species of mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say, using an excito-repellency test system. Ae. aegypti was collected from a small village in Kanchanaburi Province and Culex quinquefasciatus was captured from an urban area of Bangkok. Mosquitoes from the F1-F3 generations were tested in the excito-repellency test chamber for contact excitation and non-contact spatial repellency. Results showed that both species demonstrated varying levels of behavioral escape responses to different essential oils, showing a clear dose response depending on percent w/v concentration used. Orange oil produced the least response in both mosquito species, while citronella and clove the greatest. In general, Cx. quinquefasciatus exhibited much stronger behavioral responses to all four essential oils than Ae. aegypti. From this study, we conclude that the essential oils from various botanical sources should continue to be screened for protective properties against mosquitoes and other biting arthropods. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Boonyuan W.,Kasetsart University | Grieco J.P.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Bangs M.J.,Jl. Kertajasa | Prabaripai A.,Kasetsart University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Vector Ecology | Year: 2014

An investigation of the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti (= Stegomyia aegypti) to various concentrations of essential oils (2.5, 5, and 10%) extracted from hairy basil (Ocimum americanum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus Rendle), and plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) were performed using an excito-repellency test chamber. Results showed that Ae. aegypti exhibited varying levels of escape response in both the contact and noncontact chambers in response to different essential oils. The magnitude of the behaviors changed in a dose-response fashion depending on the percent volume to volume concentration of oil used. A 2.5% concentration of hairy basil oil produced a significantly greater escape response compared to the other extracts at the same concentration (P< 0.05). Oils of ginger, lemongrass, and citronella produced stronger irritant and repellent responses at the median 5% concentration compared to the lowest and highest concentrations. There was marked suppression of escape for both contact and noncontact tests using 10% concentrations of hairy basil, lemongrass, and citronella, with high knockdown for all three oils after 30 min. Hairy basil and lemongrass had the highest insecticidal activity to Ae. aegypti, with LC50 values of 6.3 and 6.7 percent, respectively. We conclude that the essential oils from native plants tested, and likely many other extracts found in plants, have inherent repellent and irritant qualities that should to be screened and optimized for their behavior-modifying properties against Ae. aegypti and other biting arthropods of public health and pest importance. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.

Boonyuan W.,Kasetsart University | Kongmee M.,Kasetsart University | Bangs M.J.,Jl. Kertajasa | Prabaripai A.,Kasetsart University | Chareonviriyaphap T.,Kasetsart University
Journal of Vector Ecology | Year: 2011

Escape responses of mated and unmated nulliparous Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were compared using three different concentrations of deltamethrin in the presence or absence of a live animal host using an excito-repellency (ER) test system. Both insecticide contact (excitation) and non-contact (repellency) test configurations were compared. For contact trials, mated mosquitoes showed similar escape movements among the three concentrations when host stimuli were absent. Significant differences in responses were seen between the lower concentrations of (LC 50 and LC 75) deltamethrin with and without hosts present (P<0.05). Presence or absence of host stimuli produced no significant differences in escape response for unmated females when exposed to the highest concentration (LC 90) of deltamethrin. Our findings indicate that as deltamethrin concentrations decrease to sublethal levels, mating status and host cues play a more significant role in escape behavior. Therefore, insemination can influence the outcome of feeding success and flight movement of nulliparous female Ae. aegypti in contact with deltamethrin and in the presence of live host stimuli. The ER assay system serves as a useful tool for observing excitation and repellency responses of Ae. aegypti to insecticides in the presence or absence of other environmental and biological cues that can affect mosquito behavior. © 2011 The Society for Vector Ecology.

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