Gwalior, India
Gwalior, India

Jiwaji University , is an public affiliating university situated in Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India. The name comes from that of George Jivajirao Scindia of Gwalior. The university was established on May 23, 1964 and Sarvapelli Radhakrishnan, the President of India, laid the foundation stone of the University Campus on December 11, 1964. It is fully accredited by the Indian government. The University offers affiliation to institutions of higher learning in six districts of Gwalior and Chambal Division: Gwalior, Morena, Bhind, Guna, Shivpuri and Datia. It started with 29 affiliated colleges and now more than 300 colleges are affiliated to it. Wikipedia.

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Naik A.A.,Jiwaji University | Patro I.K.,Jiwaji University | Patro N.,Jiwaji University
Frontiers in Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Environmental stressors including protein malnutrition (PMN) during pre-, neo- and post-natal age have been documented to affect cognitive development and cause increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders. Most studies have addressed either of the three windows and that does not emulate the clinical conditions of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). Such data fail to provide a complete picture of the behavioral alterations in the F1 generation. The present study thus addresses the larger window from gestation to F1 generation, a new model of intra-generational PMN. Naive Sprague Dawley (SD) dams pre-gestationally switched to LP (8% protein) or HP (20% protein) diets for 45 days were bred and maintained throughout gestation on same diets. Pups born (HP/LP dams) were maintained on the respective diets post-weaningly. The present study aimed to show the sex specific differences in the neurobehavioral evolution and behavioral phenotype of the HP/LP F1 generation pups. A battery of neurodevelopmental reflex tests, behavioral (Open field and forelimb gripstrength test), and cognitive [Elevated plus maze (EPM) and Morris water maze (MWM)] assays were performed. A decelerated growth curve with significantly restricted body and brain weight, delays in apparition of neuro-reflexes and poor performance in the LP group rats was recorded. Intra-generational PMN induced poor habituation-with-time in novel environment exploration, low anxiety and hyperactive like profile in open field test in young and adult rats. The study revealed poor forelimb neuromuscular strength in LP F1 pups till adulthood. Group occupancy plots in MWM test revealed hyperactivity with poor learning, impaired memory retention and integration, thus modeling the signs of early onset Alzehemier phenotype. In addition, a gender specific effect of LP diet with severity in males and favoring female sex was also noticed. © 2015 Naik, Patro and Patro.


Nagayach A.,Jiwaji University | Patro N.,Jiwaji University | Patro I.,Jiwaji University
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Behavioral impairments are the most empirical consequence of diabetes mellitus documented in both humans and animal models, but the underlying causes are still poorly understood. As the cerebellum plays a major role in coordination and execution of the motor functions, we investigated the possible involvement of glial activation, cellular degeneration and glutamate transportation in the cerebellum of rats, rendered diabetic by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 45 mg/kg body weight; intraperitoneally). Motor function alterations were studied using Rotarod test (motor coordination) and grip strength (muscle activity) at 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th week post-diabetic confirmation. Scenario of glial (astroglia and microglia) activation, cell death and glutamate transportation was gaged using immunohistochemistry, histological study and image analysis. Cellular degeneration was clearly demarcated in the diabetic cerebellum. Glial cells were showing sequential and marked activation following diabetes in terms of both morphology and cell number. Bergmann glial cells were hypertrophied and distorted. Active caspase-3 positive apoptotic cells were profoundly present in all three cerebellar layers. Reduced co-labeling of GLT-1 and GFAP revealed the altered glutamate transportation in cerebellum following diabetes. These results, exclusively derived from histology, immunohistochemistry and cellular quantification, provide first insight over the associative reciprocity between the glial activation, cellular degeneration and reduced glutamate transportation, which presumably lead to the behavioral alterations following STZ-induced diabetes. © 2014 Nagayach, Patro and Patro.


Jain Rajeev R.,Jiwaji University | Rather J.A.,Jiwaji University
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2011

A sensitive electroanalytical method for determination of gemifloxacin in pharmaceutical formulation has been investigated on the basis of the enhanced electrochemical response at multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode in the presence of CTAB. Solubilized system of different surfactants including SDS, Tween-20 and CTAB were taken for the study of electrochemical behaviour of gemifloxacin at modified electrode. The reduction peak current increases in the presence of CTAB while other surfactants show opposite effect. The modified electrode exhibits catalytic activity, high sensitivity, stability and is applicable over wide range of concentration for the determination of gemifloxacin. The mechanism of electrochemical reduction of gemifloxacin has been proposed on the basis of CV, SWV, DPV and coulometeric techniques. The proposed squarewave voltammetric method shows linearity over the concentration range 2.47-15.5 μg/mL. The achieved limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) are 0.90. ng/mL and 3.0. ng/mL respectively. © 2010.


Shrivastava S.,Jiwaji University
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Problem statement: Aluminum (Al) is a trivalent cation found in its ionic form in most kinds of animal tissues and in natural waters everywhere. Approach: It is a potent neurotoxin and has been associated in the pathogenesis of several clinical disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Results: The aim of the study was to demonstrate the protective effect of S-Allyl-Cysteines (SAC) against Al-induced toxicity in rat model on certain biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress enzymes of white albino rats. Six rats per group were divided into various treatment groups. Group one rats were given normal saline and served as control group. Group two animals received Al as aluminum nitrate 32.5 mg (i.p.) for the induction of toxicity. Group three to five received different doses of SAC (25, 50 and 100 mg kg -1) for 3 days after 24 h of Al toxicity. Rats were orally administered their respective doses every day for 3 days. Evaluations were made in blood and tissues. The activity of Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) was inhibited in all the parts of brain after Al intoxication. Significant rise were observed the Activities of Serum Transaminases (AST and ALT) after toxicant exposure. The activity of δ-Aminolevulinic acid Dehydratase (ALAD) in blood and δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Synthetase (ALAS) in brain was decreased after Al exposure. Al significant increased cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine and urea level in serum. TBARS level was significantly higher and GSH content were significantly lower during toxicity. Total and esterified cholesterol in liver, kidney and brain were increased after Al exposure. Histopathological changes in liver, kidney and brain were also recouped with the therapy. Conclusion/Recommendations: Our data proved that SAC which is a bioactive and bioavailable component of garlic has organosulfur compounds which regulates the thiol status of the cell and scavenges free radicals and work as an antioxidant. Thus SAC effectively reduces cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage induced by Al. © 2011 Science Publications.


Bhadauria M.,Jiwaji University
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2012

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a well-known hepatotoxicant, and its exposure induces hepatorenal injury via oxidative stress and biochemical alterations. This study had been conducted to confirm the protective role of propolis extract on CCl4-induced hepatorenal oxidative stress and resultant injury. Propolis extracts collected from Gwalior district and 24 female Sprague Dawley rats were used for experiment. Animals were exposed to CCl4 (0.15mL/kg, i.p.) for 12 weeks (5 days/week) followed by treatment with propolis extract (200mg/kg, p.o.) for consecutive 2 weeks. CCl4 exposure significantly depleted blood sugar and hemoglobin level and raised the level of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, protein, urea, albumin, bilirubin, creatinine, triglycerides, and cholesterol in serum. Lipid peroxidation was enhanced, whereas GSH was decreased significantly in liver and kidney in CCl4-intoxicated group. Ethanolic extract of propolis successfully prevented these alterations in experimental animals. Activities of catalase, adenosine triphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase, acid, and alkaline phosphatase were also maintained towards normal with propolis therapy. Light microscopical studies showed considerable protection in liver and kidney with propolis treatment, thus, substantiated biochemical observations. This study confirmed hepatoprotective potential of propolis extract against chronic injury induced by CCl4 by regulating antioxidative defense activities.


Bhadauria M.,Jiwaji University
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2012

A study was undertaken to evaluate protective effect of chelating agent, N-(2-hydroxy ethyl ethylene diamine triacetic acid) [HEDTA] with and without propolis against aluminum (Al) induced toxicity in liver, kidney and brain. Toxicity was induced by single administration of aluminum nitrate at a dose of 32.5mg/kg (1/2 of LD 50). HEDTA (20mg/kg, ip), propolis (200mg/kg, po), and combination of HEDTA and propolis, respectively, were administered for 3days after 24h of Al exposure. Significant enhancement in AST, ALT, uric acid, urea, cholesterol, and triglyceride contents was found in serum, whereas albumin was decreased after Al exposure. Hepatic, renal, and neuronal LPO were found significantly increased after Al exposure, whereas it inhibited AChE activity in forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. Al significantly reduced the activity of adenosine triphosphatase, superoxide dismutase and catalase and GSH contents in hepatic, renal and nervous tissues. However, individual treatment of HEDTA and propolis restored biochemical parameters towards control but combined treatment of HEDTA and propolis offered better protection in comparison to monotherapy. Combined treatment of HEDTA and propolis preserved histological features, mitigated oxidative stress and improved liver, kidney and brain functions more profoundly. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Jain R.,Jiwaji University | Dhanjai,Jiwaji University
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2013

An ultrasensitive electrochemical sensor based on the electrocatalytic properties of nano graphene (nGN) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for the detection of quinidine (QD) in solubilized systems has been developed. This nano graphene-multiwalled carbon nanotube (nGN-MWCNT) composite film modified sensor shows the higher stability and stronger catalytic activity towards oxidation of quinidine and the over-potential decreased significantly compared with the bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemical characterization of the sensor was done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) with working electrode surface area 0.56cm2 and diffusion coefficient 2.15×10-3cm2s-1. Under the optimized conditions, the oxidation peak current of QD is found to be proportional to its concentration in the range of 60ng-50μg with a detection limit of 0.186ng. The sensor was successfully employed for the detection of quinidine in bulk drugs and in its commercial pharmaceutical formulation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Bhadauria M.,Jiwaji University
Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2010

Protective effect of emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methyl anthraquinone), an active compound of Ventilago madraspatana Gaertn., was evaluated against acetaminophen-induced biochemical and histological alterations in rats. Acetaminophen (2 g/kg, po) administration caused significant elevation in the release of serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, serum bilirubin and serum protein with concomitant decrease in hemoglobin and blood sugar after 24 h of its administration. Toxicant exposure intensified the lipid peroxidation and altered glutathione status, activities of adenosine triphosphatase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase as well as major cellular constituents i.e., protein, glycogen and total cholesterol in liver and kidney. Treatment of emodin (20, 30 and 40 mg/kg, po) significantly lessened the toxicity by protecting acetaminophen-induced alterations in various blood and tissue biochemical variables after 24 h of its administration. Acetaminophen administration initiated histological damage in liver. Some degree of protection was seen after emodin therapy in a dose-dependent manner. Emodin at doses of 30 and 40 mg/kg effectively reversed toxic events induced by acetaminophen as same as silymarin (50 mg/kg, po). Thus, the study concluded that emodin at a dose of 30 mg/kg (po) possesses optimum hepatoprotective ability against acetaminophen-induced toxicity. © 2009 Elsevier GmbH.


Shrivastava S.,Jiwaji University
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2012

Aluminium (Al) is a potent neurotoxin and has together with other metals been suggested to be associated with Alzheimer's disease causality. The current study was carried out to investigate the potential role of N(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediamine triacetic acid (HEDTA) and Se in combination against Al induced toxicity. Animals were exposed to Al at a dose of 27. mg/kg/d i.p. for 60 days. HEDTA and Se were administered at a dose of 20. mg/kg/d i.p. and 0.5. mg/kg/d orally, respectively for 7 consecutive days. Induction of oxidative stress was recorded in the brain after Al exposure. Significant decrease was found in the levels of reduced glutathione activities of the enzymes glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, acetyl cholinesterase, and increased levels were observed in LPO and glutathione-S-transferase activity in brain and serum. These parameters responded positively to therapy with HEDTA, but more pronounced beneficial effects were observed when HEDTA was administered in combination with Se. The combination was effective in reducing the concentration of Al and level of DNA damage. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH.


Chauhan M.,Jiwaji University | Gupta D.C.,Jiwaji University
International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials | Year: 2014

The ab-initio calculations have been performed to investigate the structural, electronic, elastic and thermo-physical properties of TiN, ZrN and HfN in the stable B1 and high pressure B2 phases. Two different pseudo- and full-potential based approaches have been used in the calculations. The results are in good agreement with the measured data. The elastic constants for the B2 phase of these materials have been calculated for the first time except for ZrN. The observations show that these materials are mechanically stable not only in B1 phase at ambient conditions but also in B2 phase at high pressures. They are brittle in B1 phase while ductile in B2 phase. These materials are anisotropic in both B1 and B2 phases with increased anisotropy in B2 phase. The electronic behaviour of these materials is similar in both B1 and B2 phases except the broadening of the bands in B2 phase. These materials are found to be covalent, ionic and metallic in both the phases concerned. Present observation of electronic nature in CsCl structure of these materials needs validation by future researchers. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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