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Dhamija P.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Kalra S.,Bharti Hospital And Bride | Sharma P.K.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Kalaiselvan V.,Pharmacopeia | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Association of Physicians of India | Year: 2017

Pharmacovigilance is the art and science of detection, understanding and prevention of adverse drug reactions and not merely a critical analysis of prescriptions and errors. This field starts with reporting by clinicians of a suspected adverse drug reaction (ADR) to the pharmacologist followed by joint causality analysis and ends at the application of new information by a clinician for benefit of patients. There are a number of ways, which can be utilised for reporting adverse effects using pen and paper format to software applications for smart phones. Varied types of activities spreading from systematic reviews to the mechanistic evaluation of ADR can be performed under the umbrella of pharmacovigilance. It is of utmost importance for clinicians to understand how to identify, communicate and understand adverse effects of drugs with an aim to prevent harm to patients. © 2017, Journal of Association of Physicians of India. All rights reserved.

Parida S.K.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | Pottakkat B.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | Raja K.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | Vijayahari R.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | Lakshmi C.P.,JIPMERPondicherry
Journal of the Pancreas | Year: 2014

Context Information regarding the association of bacteria in the pancreatic fluid in patients with chronic pancreatitis is limited. Objective This study was designed to analyze the prevalence of bacteria in pancreatic juice in patients with chronic pancreatitis and the association of positive pancreatic fluid culture with pre-operative and post-operative parameters. Methods All patients with chronic pancreatitis who underwent operation from November 2011 to October 2013 were prospectively included in the study. Intra-operatively pancreatic duct fluid was collected and sent for culture sensitivity in all patients. The bacteriology of the fluid was analyzed and was correlated with preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative parameters. Results A total of 26 patients were analyzed. Two patients underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) preoperatively. Bacteria was present in pancreatic duct fluid in 11(42%) patients. Both patients who underwent ERCP had positive cultures. Most common organism observed was Escherichia coli (6/11, 55%) followed by Klebsiella pneumonia (3/11, 27%). Five patients with positive culture developed wound infection. Bacteria isolated from the wound were similar to pancreatic fluid. Conclusion Bacteria is commonly present in the pancreatic juice in patients with chronic pancreatitis and its presence may have an effect on the post-operative infections following operations. Based on the pancreatic fluid culture results appropriate antibiotic can be given to the patients who will develop septic complications following surgery. Role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of the chronic calcific pancreatitis needs to be investigated in future studies. © 2014 E.S. Burioni Ricerche Bibliografiche. All rights reserved.

Patil M.M.,JIPMERPondicherry | Sahoo J.,JIPMERPondicherry | Kamalanathan S.,JIPMERPondicherry | Pillai V.,JIPMERPondicherry
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2015

Anticonvulsants have the broad spectrum of side effects on the bone that are collectively known as osteopathy. Anticonvulsant induced osteopathy can have detrimental consequences. We present an unusual case that uniquely highlights both adverse effects of phenytoin on bone metabolism and side effects of its overtreatment. A 29-year-old lady came for evaluation of metabolic bone disease. Since last one year, she had severe bilateral hip pain resulting in restriction of movements. She was taking phenytoin 300 mg daily for last ten years for a seizure disorder. During evaluation at another center, she was diagnosed to have vitamin D deficiency, osteomalacia and secondary hyperparathyroidism. She received recombinant parathormone, high doses of vitamin D along with phenytoin. She presented at our centre with persistent pain and hypervitaminosis D. We stopped recombinant PTH, vitamin D and changed phenytoin to levetiracetam. Her condition improved over next six months with normalization of vitamin D. Thus, patients on phenytoin should be actively screened for side effects and the appropriate preventive and correctional measures should be undertaken. While managing these side effects overtreatment should be avoided. © 2015, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

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