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Zhong C.,University Paul Sabatier | Hou Z.,Chongqing University of Technology | Huang J.,Jinxin Research Institute for Reproductive Medicine and Genetics | Xie Q.,Shantou University | Zhong Y.,Jinxin Research Institute for Reproductive Medicine and Genetics
BMC Bioinformatics | Year: 2015

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes have a distinct geographical distribution and influence disease progression and treatment outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of HBV genotypes in Europe, the impact of mutation of different genotypes on HBV gene abnormalities, the features of CpG islands in each genotype and their potential role in epigenetic regulation. Results: Of 383 HBV isolates from European patients, HBV genotypes A-G were identified, with the most frequent being genotype D (51.96%) in 12 countries, followed by A (39.16%) in 7 countries, and then E (3.66%), G (2.87%), B (1.57%), F (0.52%) and C (0.26%). A higher rate of mutant isolates were identified in those with genotype D (46.7%) followed by G (45.5%), and mutations were associated with structural and functional abnormalities of HBV genes. Conventional CpG island I was observed in genotypes A, B, C, D and E. Conventional islands II and III were detected in all A-G genotypes. A novel CpG island IV was found in genotypes A, D and E, and island V was only observed in genotype F. The A-G genotypes lacked the novel CpG island VI. "Split" CpG island I in genotypes D and E and "split" island II in genotypes A, D, E, F and G were observed. Two mutant isolates from genotype D and one from E were found to lack both CpG islands I and III. Conclusions: HBV genotypes A-G were identified in European patients. Structural and functional abnormalities of HBV genes were caused by mutations leading to the association of genotypes D and G with increased severity of liver disease. The distribution, length and genetic traits of CpG islands were different between genotypes and their biological and clinical significances warrant further study, which will help us better understand the potential role of CpG islands in epigenetic regulation of the HBV genome. © Zhong et al.

Hou Z.,Shantou University | Huang J.,Jinxin Research Institute for Reproductive Medicine and Genetics | Zhong C.,University Paul Sabatier | Li L.,Chongqing University of Technology | And 8 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2015

There are differences in the distribution and length of HBV CpG islands and the viral mutations contribute greatly to the development of HBV-related diseases. However, little is known regarding the effects of such difference and mutations in HBV genotypes B and C sequences on the regulation of HBV gene expression and their clinical outcomes. To study the distribution, length and genetic trait of CpG islands in normal and mutant sequences of HBV genotypes B and C, 320 HBV isolates from Chinese patients were retrieved from GenBank. Programs CLUSTALX 1.83 and MethPrimer were employed to perform multiple sequence alignments and to predict CpG islands, respectively. 72.0% genotype B isolates contained three conventional CpG islands, and 76.1% genotype C only contained CpG islands II and III. 14.6% genotype B and 7.5% genotype C contained three novel CpG islands. In genotype B, lengths of conventional CpG islands between normal and mutant isolates exhibited substantial variations, but in genotype C, those were relatively stable. CpG island II could be "truncated" or "split". "Truncated" region mutations were associated with structural and functional abnormalities of HBV genes. Rate of "split" CpG island II in genotype B was much higher than that in genotype C. In the majority of isolates from HCC and HBV-ACLF, genotype C lacked CpG island I and novel islands. Distribution, length and genetic trait of CpG islands in HBV genotypes B and C might affect their methylation status, and further affect regulation of HBV gene expression, leading to different clinical outcomes. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

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