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Ali N.H.,University of Karachi | Ali N.H.,Jinnah Medical and Dental College | Farooqui A.,University of Karachi | Khan A.,University of Karachi | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries | Year: 2010

Background: This study was conducted to examine the frequency of contamination in retail meat available in Karachi, Pakistan. Methodology: Raw meat samples (250) and surface swabs (90) from meat processing equipment and the surrounding environment were analyzed for microbiological contamination. Results: Out of 340 samples, 84% were found to be contaminated with bacterial species, including Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. A total of 550 (66%) of the bacterial isolates were potential pathogens. Of these, 342 and 208 isolates were from meat and environmental samples respectively. Food-borne pathogens isolated from meat samples included Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria, Salmonella Enteritidis and Shigella species whereas environmental samples yielded Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella species. Four strains of Brucella species were also isolated from meat samples. Total aerobic counts ranged between 108 -1010 CFU/g or cm2. Resistance to a wide range of antibiotics was observed. Resistance rates to ampicillin, amoxicillin, novobiocin and cefaclor were from 62 to 75% in general. Thirty-three percent of Salmonella isolates were resistant to ampicillin. No quinolone resistance was observed. Biofilm formation was observed among 88 (16%) pathogenic bacteria including E. coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter species and Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: Food-borne pathogens found in retail shops could be sources for horizontal contamination of meat. Our data confirm the circulation of antibiotic resistant and biofilm forming pathogens in raw meat and its environment in retail shops in Pakistan, which could play a role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance amongst food-borne bacteria. © 2010 Hassan Ali et al. Source


Rathi M.K.,Jinnah Medical and Dental College | Fida M.,Aga Khan University
Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan | Year: 2014

Objective: To investigate the applicability of Pont's index in estimating the maxillary arch width depending on the sum of mesiodistal dimensions of maxillary incisors. Study Design: Cross-sectional, comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Dental Clinics, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2006 to December 2008. Methodology: A total of 150 subjects were included. All measurements were taken on maxillary study casts by a digital caliper. The premolar arch width was taken from the first premolar of the left side to the right side at the distal end of its occlusal groove. The molar arch width was taken from the maxillary left permanent molar to the same of the right at its mesial pit on the occlusal surface. The combined width of the maxillary incisors was taken at their greatest mesiodistal widths. The predicted arch widths were estimated with the Pont's formula: Premolar width (P) =(Sum of Incisor widths/80) × 100, Molar width (M) =(Sum of Incisor widths/64) × 100 Incisor diameters and arch widths were described in terms of mean values, standard deviations, and coefficients of variation. Correlation coefficients were computed between observed arch widths and those predicted according to Pont's M and P indices. Results: The mean age was 15.8 ± 1.6 years. Low correlations existed between observed and Pont's predicted arch widths in both premolar (r = 0.364) and molar (r = 0.238) regions. Twenty two percent of interpremolar arch widths and 18% of intermolar arch widths showed differences between -1 mm to 1 mm. Conclusion: Low correlations were found between observed and Pont's predicted arch widths. Pont's index is unlikely to be clinically useful as a true predictor of arch width. Source


Ali N.H.,Jinnah Medical and Dental College | Ali N.H.,University of Karachi | Faizi S.,University of Karachi | Kazmi S.U.,University of Karachi
Pharmaceutical Biology | Year: 2011

Context: Development of resistance in human pathogens against conventional antibiotic necessitates searching indigenous medicinal plants having antibacterial property. Twenty-seven medicinal plants used actively in folklore, ayurvedic and traditional system of medicine were selected for the evaluation of their antimicrobial activity for this study. Eleven plants chosen from these 27 are used as spices in local cuisine. Objective: Evaluation of the effectiveness of some medicinal plant extracts against clinical isolates. Material and methods: Nonedible plant parts were extracted with methanol and evaporated in vacuo to obtain residue. Powdered edible parts were boiled three times and cooled in sterile distilled water for 2 min each and filtrate collected. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of plant extracts and filtrates/antibiotics was evaluated against clinical isolates by microbroth dilution method. Results: Water extract of Syzygium aromaticum L. (Myrtaceae) buds, methanol extracts of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae) and Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) leaves and Peganum harmala L. (Nitrariaceae) seeds had MIC ranges of 31.25-250 μg/ml. S. aromaticum inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. F. carica and O. europaea inhibited growth of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. pyogenes whereas P. harmala was effective against S. aureus, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Candida albicans. Ampicillin, velosef, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and ceftazidime, cefotaxime, cefepime, which are used as control, had MIC ≥50 and 1.5 μg/ml, respectively, for organisms sensitive to extracts. Discussion and conclusion: Mono/multiextract from identified plants will provide an array of safe antimicrobial agents to control infections by drug-resistant bacteria. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source


Rahman A.J.,Aga Khan University | Naz F.,Aga Khan University | Ashraf S.,Jinnah Medical and Dental College
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2011

Objectives: To determine the significance of pyuria as a predictor of culture proven urinary tract infections (UTI) in neonates and to assess the frequency of urinary tract anomalies in neonates with pyuria. Methods: Prospective study conducted at the neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital; (Liaquat National Hospital Karachi) for a period of 4 months from April 2008 to August 2008. One hundred and ten consecutive infants < 28 days of age admitted to the NICU of Liaquat National Hospital for medical reasons were included in the study. Information regarding age, gender, antenatal history, birth weight, clinical examination, laboratory findings and outcome were recorded on a questionnaire. Septic work up was performed and urine samples were collected using urethral catheterization. Patients showing any number of white blood cells on microscopy were included and their urine sent for culture. All patients had Ultrasound done during their hospital stay and those patients with any renal abnormality were further investigated with Micturating cyestoretherogram (MCUG) at 6 weeks. Results: Out of one hundred and ten patients admitted, thirty five patients showed the presence of pus cells in urine and were included in the study. Of the 35 neonates with pyuria, 71.4% had no growth in urine cultures and 38.2%neonates with insignificant pyuria (< 9 cells in urine) showed a positive culture. The renal ultrasound was normal in 51.4% neonates with pyuria although it was abnormal in 100% of the subjects with higher number of pus cells in urine (>20 pus cells). Conclusion: Pyuria is not a useful marker for the diagnosis of culture proven UTI in neonates it cannot be used as an indicator of underlying renal abnormality, though it may have some utility in neonates with >20 /numerous pus cells. Source


Lakhani M.J.,Jinnah Medical and Dental College
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC | Year: 2011

Impaction of the 3rd molar is a high incident problem occurring in up to 73% of young adults in Europe. Appropriate follow-up routines and optimal timing for surgical removal of the 3rd molars can be established in patients judged to be at increased risk of impaction. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for mandibular 3rd molar impaction in adolescent orthodontic patients and to establish anterior arch crowding as a predictive model for mandibular 3rd molar impaction. Pre-treatment Orthopantomogram (OPG) of 158 orthodontic patients with the evidence of anterior arch crowding on pre-treatment study models were evaluated for mandibular third molar position. Out of 158 patients, 45 were male and 113 were female. Ninety-seven (61%) of the patients showed anterior arch crowding with a space discrepancy of 5-10 mm calculated on the pretreatment study models. Fifty-seven patients showed 107 third molar impactions. Anterior arch crowding in these patients was ranging from 7-10 mm. Out of 107 impacted third molars 73 were Mesioangular 14 were Distoangular 6 were Vertical and 14 were Horizontal. If the arch size is smaller as compared to the tooth size the evidence of lack of space would be there in anterior segment as crowding and in posterior segment as 3rd molar impaction. Source

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