Jinnah Medical and Dental College

Karachi, Pakistan

Jinnah Medical and Dental College

Karachi, Pakistan
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Bano F.,Jinnah Medical and Dental College | Ahmed A.,Karachi Medical and Dental College | Parveen T.,University of Karachi | Haider S.,University of Karachi
Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences | Year: 2014

Use of the herbal drugs increasing all over the world due to its minimum side effect. Nigella sativa black seeds used in folk medicine for the promotion of good health and for the treatment of many diseases .The present study is designed to investigate the neurochemical and behavioral effect of aqueous extract of Nigella sativa L. seeds in rats. Neurochemical studies were performed for DA and DOPAC levels in whole rats' brain. Locomotive behavior was observed in novel environment and familiar environment. Elevated plus maze and light dark behavioral modules were used to monitor anxiety in rats. The oral administration of AENS for six weeks increased time spent in open arm of elevated plus maze and light compartment in light dark box. Increased locomotors activity in novel environment (open field) was noticed suggesting that increased in DA level may be related to increased locomotive activity in rats.

Khan S.,Aga Khan University | Mehmood M.H.,Aga Khan University | Ali A.N.A.,Aga Khan University | Ali A.N.A.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2011

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Areca catechu, commonly known as betel nut, is very famous for its medicinal use in multiple disorders. It is also popular as a remedy against inflammatory disorders in the Unani (Greco-Arab) system of medicine. Objective of the study: This study was aimed at investigating the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the crude extract of Areca catechu and its respective fractions. Materials and methods: Paw edema, formalin-induced nociception and acetic acid-induced writhing assays were carried out in vivo. Free radical scavenging activity of the plant extract was performed in vitro. Results: Preliminary experiments using a single dose (100 mg/kg) of Areca catechu and its respective fractions demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect on carrageenan-induced edema in mice and rats, the aqueous fraction being distinctly more effective. When studied on prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2), arachidonic acid, histamine, or serotonin (5HT)-induced edema in rats, Areca catechu and its aqueous fraction markedly repressed only the PGE 2 and arachidonic acid-induced inflammation. When studied for analgesic activity, the crude extract and its aqueous fraction produced a dose-dependent (10-100 mg/kg) inhibitory effect on formalin-induced nociception in mice and acetic acid-induced writhing in rats, similar to aspirin. In DPPH assay, Areca catechu and its aqueous fraction exhibited free radical scavenging activity with respective IC 50 values of 5.34 μg/ml (4.93-5.78, CI; 95%, n = 5) and 7.28 μg/ml (6.04-7.95, n = 4), like that of rutin with IC 50 value of 4.75 μg/ml (3.89-5.42, n = 4). Conclusion: These results indicate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Areca catechu and provide a rationale for its medicinal use in inflammatory disorders. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Nesar S.,Jinnah Medical and Dental College | Shoaib M.H.,University of Karachi | Rahim N.,Dow University of Health Sciences | Rehman R.,Jinnah Medical and Dental College
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2012

Fluoroquinolones are broad-spectrum antibiotics that are considered as first line drugs to treat infectious diseases. In order to find out useful fluoroquinolones, the antibiotic resistance of fluoroquinolones, namely, ofloxacin (OFL), ciprofloxacin (CIP), norfloxacin (NRF), enoxacin (ENX), pefloxacin (PFL) and levofloxacin (LVF) was investigated against ninety five clinical isolates that includes Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. In vitro activity of these isolates was carried out by agar dilution method. All Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to OFL at 2 μg/ml. About 6% isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae were found to be resistance to LVF and ENX, 6% to CIP, OFL and PFL and none of the isolates were resistant to LVF and ENX. Percentage resistance of P. aeruginosa was found to be 4.35% to CIP, 7% to OFL and 2.2% to NRF, whereas 8.69% to ENX, 0% to PFL and 17.4% to LVF, respectively. The present study provides the data about the emergence of resistance to fluoroquinolones among gram positive and gram negative bacteria and strongly recommends the rational and appropriate use of these antibiotics.

Iqbal M.,Jinnah Medical and Dental College | Zaman L.,Karachi
Medical Forum Monthly | Year: 2015

Objective: The prime objective of the study is to determine the learning style preference of dental students in Jinnah Medical and Dental College, Karachi. Study Design: Cross-sectional Descriptive Study Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Jinnah Medical and Dental College on students of Dentistry, first year through final year. VARK™ questionnaire version 7.8 © was distributed and data was collected between 01 November to 30 November, 2014. Materials and Methods: Total 200 questionnaires were sent out. 160 students who consented to participate in the study were included and those who refused were excluded. Descriptive statistics was used to identify the learning style preferences of the students. The VARK scores were recorded on Excel sheet. Scoring algorithms especially designed for VARK research, available on its website were used for data management and description. Results: 51% of the students (n=82) preferred a uni-modal learning style, of which Aural was the most common. 47% of the dental students (n=75) used all four modes for learning while 2% preferred bi-modal (n=3). None of the students were tri-modal. Conclusion: In conclusion, majority of students preferred uni-modal followed by the group which preferred all modes of presentation.

Hassan S.H.,Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College | Ghani R.,Jinnah Medical and Dental College | Sarwar M.,Al Jouf Medical College
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2017

Objective: To study alterations in superoxide dismutase at molecular level in spirometry-proven bronchial asthma. Methods: This pilot study was conducted at Baqai Medical University Hospital, Karachi, from June to December 2013, and comprised spirometry-proven asthmatics. The allele frequencies of missense polymorphisms of the exonintron of a superoxide dismutase, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase were included in the analysis and compared with their age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Results: Of the 45 participants, 30(66.7%) were cases and 15(33.3%) were controls. The mean age of cases and controls was 37.77±11.95 and 37.27±11.81 years, respectively. The case population showed significant mean baseline and predicted spirometric values (p<0.05). The mean serum superoxide oxide dismutase in cases and controls was 62.53± 15.23 and 55.65± 15.87, respectively. The superoxide dismutase genetic variants studied for the intronic polymorphism in copper-zinc superoxide dismutase showed increased risk of asthma compared with non-asthmatic controls. Conclusion: Levels of serum superoxide dismutase were elevated with concomitant amplification of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase gene. © 2017, Pakistan Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Qadir F.,Liaquat National Medical College | Zehra T.,Liaquat National Medical College | Khan I.,Jinnah Medical and Dental College
Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan | Year: 2011

Objective: To assess whether students find concept mapping a useful learning methodology to conceptualize and organize topics studied in CNS module of Pharmacology; and to evaluate whether addition of concept mapping assignment could help to improve examination scores. Study Design: An analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: College of Dentistry, Jinnah Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan, from March to May 2009. Methodology: A class of 50 BDS students was recruited for the study. Two randomly selected groups of 12 students each, prepared concept maps in topics from CNS pharmacology which were displayed and discussed during tutorial sessions. The other two groups (n=25) following the traditional teaching methodology, served as controls. Scores from best choice questions and short essay questions were compared between the investigational and control groups using the student's t-test with significance at p < 0.05. Feedback obtained after completion of the study was evaluated as percent response. Results: One-best-choice test of the control group showed a mean grade of 57.1 ± 16.7 vs. test group mean of 58.8 ± 13. For the short essay questions, control group obtained a mean of 52.3 ± 18.8 vs. test group mean grade of 53.8 ± 22.5. Both results were not significantly different (p > 0.05). However, feedback about concept mapping showed that the technique helped the students to conceptualize difficult topics in CNS pharmacology (86.36%). Concept mapping was particularly beneficial in preparing for exams as it provided a quick overview of the entire subject (68.68%). Conclusion: Students found concept mapping as a useful pedagogical tool which could potentially be used to acquire meaningful learning in Pharmacology as a supplement to traditional teaching techniques. It was not found beneficial in improving examination grades probably because standard examinations and concept mapping measure different cognitive domains. © 2011. College of Physicians & Surgeons Pakistan.

PubMed | Jinnah Medical and Dental College, University of Karachi, Dow University of Health Sciences and Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2017

To determine the future priorities of young medical doctors in tertiary care hospitals in a major urban centre.This multi-centre cross-sectional study was conducted at four tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan, from January to June 2015, and comprised medical interns. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted. The participants were inquired about their demographics, preferred places and hospitals for training in the future and reason for their choices. Differences in future choice for going abroad between gender, relationship status, household monthly income, etc. were analysed. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis.Of the 308 participants, 228(74%) were females and 80(26%) were males. The overall mean age was 24.561.18 years. Moreover, 118(38.3%) participants wanted to go abroad for their postgraduate training. Of them, 46(39%) wished to return to Pakistan after completing the training from abroad. Top five reasons for going abroad included better quality of training 60(50.8%), better environment and facilities 35(29.7%), security and safety 29(24.6%), better career growth 24(20.3%) and fianc/spouse settled there 18(15.3%). Preference of pursuing postgraduate training abroad outside Pakistan was significantly higher among doctors who were males (p=0.026), had graduated from medical colleges in Karachi (p=0.003), had household monthly income of greater than Rs100,000 (p<0.001) and had an immediate family member abroad (p<0.001). Besides, 190(61.7%) doctors wanted to pursue their training in Pakistan. Of them, 85(44.7%) wished to do their postgraduate training in public sector hospitals while 105(55.3%) had their preference for private hospitals. Main reasons for joining private hospitals included quality of training 40(38.1%), clean environment 25(23.8%), facilities 25(23.8%) and familiarity with environment 25(23.8%).Almost half of the female doctors were planning not to pursue their careers in the future, whereas half of the male doctors wished to go abroad for training with only one-third among them planning to return.

Ali N.H.,Jinnah Medical and Dental College | Ali N.H.,University of Karachi | Faizi S.,University of Karachi | Kazmi S.U.,University of Karachi
Pharmaceutical Biology | Year: 2011

Context: Development of resistance in human pathogens against conventional antibiotic necessitates searching indigenous medicinal plants having antibacterial property. Twenty-seven medicinal plants used actively in folklore, ayurvedic and traditional system of medicine were selected for the evaluation of their antimicrobial activity for this study. Eleven plants chosen from these 27 are used as spices in local cuisine. Objective: Evaluation of the effectiveness of some medicinal plant extracts against clinical isolates. Material and methods: Nonedible plant parts were extracted with methanol and evaporated in vacuo to obtain residue. Powdered edible parts were boiled three times and cooled in sterile distilled water for 2 min each and filtrate collected. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of plant extracts and filtrates/antibiotics was evaluated against clinical isolates by microbroth dilution method. Results: Water extract of Syzygium aromaticum L. (Myrtaceae) buds, methanol extracts of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae) and Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) leaves and Peganum harmala L. (Nitrariaceae) seeds had MIC ranges of 31.25-250 μg/ml. S. aromaticum inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. F. carica and O. europaea inhibited growth of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. pyogenes whereas P. harmala was effective against S. aureus, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Candida albicans. Ampicillin, velosef, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and ceftazidime, cefotaxime, cefepime, which are used as control, had MIC ≥50 and 1.5 μg/ml, respectively, for organisms sensitive to extracts. Discussion and conclusion: Mono/multiextract from identified plants will provide an array of safe antimicrobial agents to control infections by drug-resistant bacteria. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Rathi M.K.,Jinnah Medical and Dental College | Fida M.,Aga Khan University
Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan | Year: 2014

Objective: To investigate the applicability of Pont's index in estimating the maxillary arch width depending on the sum of mesiodistal dimensions of maxillary incisors. Study Design: Cross-sectional, comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Dental Clinics, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2006 to December 2008. Methodology: A total of 150 subjects were included. All measurements were taken on maxillary study casts by a digital caliper. The premolar arch width was taken from the first premolar of the left side to the right side at the distal end of its occlusal groove. The molar arch width was taken from the maxillary left permanent molar to the same of the right at its mesial pit on the occlusal surface. The combined width of the maxillary incisors was taken at their greatest mesiodistal widths. The predicted arch widths were estimated with the Pont's formula: Premolar width (P) =(Sum of Incisor widths/80) × 100, Molar width (M) =(Sum of Incisor widths/64) × 100 Incisor diameters and arch widths were described in terms of mean values, standard deviations, and coefficients of variation. Correlation coefficients were computed between observed arch widths and those predicted according to Pont's M and P indices. Results: The mean age was 15.8 ± 1.6 years. Low correlations existed between observed and Pont's predicted arch widths in both premolar (r = 0.364) and molar (r = 0.238) regions. Twenty two percent of interpremolar arch widths and 18% of intermolar arch widths showed differences between -1 mm to 1 mm. Conclusion: Low correlations were found between observed and Pont's predicted arch widths. Pont's index is unlikely to be clinically useful as a true predictor of arch width.

Lakhani M.J.,Jinnah Medical and Dental College
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC | Year: 2011

Impaction of the 3rd molar is a high incident problem occurring in up to 73% of young adults in Europe. Appropriate follow-up routines and optimal timing for surgical removal of the 3rd molars can be established in patients judged to be at increased risk of impaction. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for mandibular 3rd molar impaction in adolescent orthodontic patients and to establish anterior arch crowding as a predictive model for mandibular 3rd molar impaction. Pre-treatment Orthopantomogram (OPG) of 158 orthodontic patients with the evidence of anterior arch crowding on pre-treatment study models were evaluated for mandibular third molar position. Out of 158 patients, 45 were male and 113 were female. Ninety-seven (61%) of the patients showed anterior arch crowding with a space discrepancy of 5-10 mm calculated on the pretreatment study models. Fifty-seven patients showed 107 third molar impactions. Anterior arch crowding in these patients was ranging from 7-10 mm. Out of 107 impacted third molars 73 were Mesioangular 14 were Distoangular 6 were Vertical and 14 were Horizontal. If the arch size is smaller as compared to the tooth size the evidence of lack of space would be there in anterior segment as crowding and in posterior segment as 3rd molar impaction.

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