Jining, China
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Xie M.-H.,China Agricultural University | Ren Q.,China Agricultural University | Ren Q.,Jining Normal College | Zhang Q.-W.,China Agricultural University | Liu X.-X.,China Agricultural University
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2010

The allelochemicals released by Eupatorium adenophorum roots is an important factor inducing the changes of the weed soil environment, which provides favorable conditions for the successful invasion of the weed. By using GC/MS technique, the components and their relative contents of phenolic allelochemicals in aphid-infested and non-infested E. adenophorum root zone soils were analyzed, with unplanted soil as the control. Less difference was observed in the components of phenolic allelochemicals among the test soils, but their relative contents differed significantly. The relative contents of benzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in aphid-infested E. adenophorum root zone soil were significantly higher than the control; whereas that of 4-hydroxylcinnamic acid was in reverse. In the test three soils, the proportions of benzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 4-hydroxylcinnamic acid were different. The bacteriostatic test with the three acids and their combinations based on their proportions in test soils showed that at lower concentrations v 50-150 mg L-1), the three acids had significant inhibitory effects on five kinds of soil-borne pathogens, but their combinations had different inhibitory effects on the five pathogens, with the effects being significantly higher for the combinations with the proportions in non-infested E. adenophorum root zone soil and the control.


Ren Q.,China Agricultural University | Ren Q.,JiNing Normal College | Cao L.-Z.,China Agricultural University | Su J.-W.,CAS Institute of Zoology | And 3 more authors.
Weed Science | Year: 2010

The volatile compounds of crofton weed infested by cotton aphids and sprayed with MeJA were collected and analyzed by the TCT-GC/MS technique. The healthy weeds were controls. Seventeen volatiles identified from crofton weed included green leaf odors, monoterpenes and sequiterpenes, and oxo-compounds. Camphene, 2-carene, α-phellandrene, ρ-cymene, and caryophyllene were the major volatiles and constituted about 77 of the total volatile emissions from the control. In the aphid-infested weeds, no new induced component was found. Among the terpenes, ρ-cymene increased markedly in the infested weeds compared with the control, whereas all sesquiterpenes decreased markedly. Levels of endogenous JA in leaves and young stems of the aphid-infested weeds were markedly higher than in the control, whereas both endogenous SA level and ABA level were not significantly different. MeJA sprayed on crofton weed with the aphid infestation had a similar effect on volatile emissions. It is suggested that JA was one of the most important signals in crofton weed and could regulate the emission of volatile compounds. © 2010 Weed Science Society of America.


Guo H.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Guo H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Sun Y.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Li Y.,CAS Institute of Zoology | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The effects of elevated CO2 (750 ppm vs. 390 ppm) were evaluated on nitrogen (N) acquisition and assimilation by three Medicago truncatula genotypes, including two N-fixing-deficient mutants (dnf1-1 and dnf1-2) and their wild-type (Jemalong). The proportion of N acquisition from atmosphere and soil were quantified by 15N stable isotope, and N transportation and assimilation-related genes and enzymes were determined by qPCR and biochemical analysis. Elevated CO2 decreased nitrate uptake from soil in all three plant genotypes by down-regulating nitrate reductase (NR), nitrate transporter NRT1.1 and NR activity. Jemalong plant, however, produced more nodules, up-regulated N-fixation-related genes and enhanced percentage of N derived from fixation (%Ndf) to increase foliar N concentration and N content in whole plant (Ntotal Yield) to satisfy the requirement of larger biomass under elevated CO2. In contrast, both dnf1 mutants deficient in N fixation consequently decreased activity of glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase (GS/GOGAT) and N concentration under elevated CO2. Our results suggest that elevated CO2 is likely to modify N acquisition of M. truncatula by simultaneously increasing N fixation and reducing nitrate uptake from soil. We propose that elevated CO2 causes legumes to rely more on N fixation than on N uptake from soil to satisfy N requirements. © 2013 Guo et al.


Guo H.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Guo H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Sun Y.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Ren Q.,Jining Normal College | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Both resistance and tolerance, which are two strategies that plants use to limit biotic stress, are affected by the abiotic environment including atmospheric CO2 levels. We tested the hypothesis that elevated CO2 would reduce resistance (i.e., the ability to prevent damage) but enhance tolerance (i.e., the ability to regrow and compensate for damage after the damage has occurred) of tomato plants to the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The results showed that elevated CO2 reduced resistance by decreasing the jasmonic acid (JA) level and activities of lipoxygenase, proteinase inhibitors, and polyphenol oxidase in wild-type (WT) plants infested with H. armigera. Consequently, the activities of total protease, trypsin-like enzymes, and weak and active alkaline trypsin-like enzymes increased in the midgut of H. armigera when fed on WT plants grown under elevated CO2. Unexpectedly, the tolerance of the WT to H. armigera (in terms of photosynthetic rate, activity of sucrose phosphate synthases, flower number, and plant biomass and height) was also reduced by elevated CO2. Under ambient CO2, the expression of resistance and tolerance to H. armigera was much greater in wild type than in spr2 (a JA-deficient genotype) plants, but elevated CO2 reduced these differences of the resistance and tolerance between WT and spr2 plants. The results suggest that the JA signaling pathway contributes to both plant resistance and tolerance to herbivorous insects and that by suppressing the JA signaling pathway, elevated CO2 will simultaneously reduce the resistance and tolerance of tomato plants. © 2012 Guo et al.


Wei J.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Yan L.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Ren Q.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Ren Q.,JiNing Normal College | And 3 more authors.
Plant, Cell and Environment | Year: 2013

We used tomato genotypes deficient in the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway to study the interaction between the production of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) that serve as information cues for herbivores as well as natural enemies of herbivores, and the production of foliar trichomes as defence barriers. We found that jasmonic acid-insensitive1 (jai1) mutant plants with both reduced HIPVs and trichome production received higher oviposition of adult leafminers, which were more likely to be parasitized by the leafminer parasitoids than JA biosynthesis spr2 mutant plants deficient in HIPVs but not trichomes. We also showed that the preference and acceptance of leafminers and parasitoids to trichome-removed plants from either spr2 or wild-type (WT) genotypes over trichome-intact genotypes can be ascribed to the reduced trichomes on treated plants, but not to altered direct and indirect defence traits such as JA, proteinase inhibitor (PI)-II and HIPVs levels. Although the HIPVs of WT plants were more attractive to adult insects, the insects preferred trichome-free jai1 plants for oviposition and also had greater reproductive success on these plants. Our results provide strong evidence that antagonism between HIPV emission and trichome production affects tritrophic interactions. The interactions among defence traits are discussed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Cui H.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Cui H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Sun Y.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Su J.,CAS Institute of Zoology | And 3 more authors.
Arthropod-Plant Interactions | Year: 2012

The effect of elevated O 3 on tomato plants of three different genotypes (wild-type, a jasmonic acid (JA) defense-enhanced genotype (35S) and a JA-deficient genotype (spr2)) grown in association with the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius biotype B was examined in the field in open-top chambers. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that elevated O 3 tends to reduce the nutrition of tomato plants, and to increase the SA-dependent pathway defenses and the secondary metabolites, and therefore decrease the population fitness of the whitefly. The results show that for all three tomato genotypes, elevated O 3 reduced the soluble sugars and free amino acids, increased the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase enzyme activity and the accumulated salicylic acid (SA), and up-regulated the pathogenesis-related protein (PR1), which is commonly considered to be the whitefly-resistance gene product involved in SA-dependent defense. Elevated O 3 did not affect the JA level in any of the three plant genotypes, but it increased the levels of some secondary metabolites, including total phenolics and condensed tannins. Elevated O 3 prolonged the developmental time of whiteflies fed on the three plant genotypes, and it also reduced the fecundity and the intrinsic rate of increase of whiteflies fed on either the 35S or the wild-type plants. These results suggest that elevated O 3 reduces the nutrition of tomato plants and enhances their SA content, relative PR mRNA expression and secondary metabolism, resulting in decreased fitness of whiteflies on these tomato plants. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Huang L.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Huang L.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Ren Q.,Jining Normal College | Sun Y.,CAS Institute of Zoology | And 3 more authors.
Plant Biology | Year: 2012

Elevation in atmospheric CO2 concentration broadly affects plant phenology and physiology, and these effects may alter the performance of plant viruses. The effects of elevated CO2 on the susceptibility of tomato plants to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) were examined for two successive years in open top chambers (OTC) in the field. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that elevated CO2 would reduce the incidence and severity of TYLCV on tomato by altering plant defence strategies. Our results showed that elevated CO2 decreased TYLCV disease incidence (by 14.6% in 2009 and 11.8% in 2010) and decreased disease severity (by 20.0% in 2009 and 10.4% in 2010). Elevated CO2 also decreased the level of TYLCV coat protein in tomato leaves. Regardless of virus infection, elevated CO2 increased plant height and aboveground biomass. Additionally, elevated CO2 increased the leaf C:N ratio of tomato, but decreased soluble protein content in leaves. Notably, elevated CO2 increased the salicylic acid (SA) level in uninfected and infected plants. In contrast, elevated CO2 reduced jasmonic acid (JA) in uninfected plants while it increased JA and abscisic acid (ABA) in virus-infected plants. Furthermore, combined exogenous SA and JA application enhanced resistance to TYLCV more than application of either SA or JA alone. Our results suggest that the modulated antagonistic relationship between SA and JA under elevated CO2 makes a great contribution to increased tomato resistance to TYLCV, and the predicted increases in tomato productivity may be enhanced by reduced plant virus susceptibility under projected rising CO2 conditions. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.


Xing D.,Jining Normal College | Yang H.,Inner Mongolia Normal University | Cao Y.,Inner Mongolia Normal University
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials | Year: 2015

The waveguide properties of spin waves through line defects in two-dimensional magnonic crystals are investigated by numerical calculating band structures and magnetization-field distributions of the defect modes. The results show that the spin waves are very well localized in the line defects, and the size of the defect bodies has an obvious influence on the defect modes existing in the frequency regime of the gap. It will provide us a theoretical foundation in the designing of spin-wave waveguides with different shapes. © Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Yang H.-W.,Inner Mongolia Normal University | Wu Y.-L.,Jining Normal College | Ma X.-Y.,Inner Mongolia Normal University
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science | Year: 2015

The distribution characteristics and correlation analysis of Fe speciation in the surface sediments from different reaches along Yellow River have been analyzed utilizing the so-called sequential extraction approach. The results indicate that the concentration of total iron (∑Fe) in the surface sediments is in the range from 14.01 g/kg to 30.98 g/kg, Liulin (H13) sample is the maximum and Bohai offshore (H21) sample is the minimum. The residue iron(Fe-6)-the highest concentration in all speciations with 92.55%~98.4% of ∑Fe, and the bio-available fraction iron (BFe) only for 1.56%~6.98% with remarkably positive correlation with ∑Fe, the change trades of BFe, Fe-6 and ∑Fe concentrations are consistency along main stream of the Yellow River. The organic matter (OM) shows a notable correlation with both BFe and Fe-Mn oxides (Fe-4), while BFe has extremely positive correlation with Fe-4, indicating that the content of BFe mainly relies on the Fe-4 and the organic matter. When the concentration of total particulate matter (TPM) is increased in the water of the Yellow River, such as in the middle reaches of the Yellow River Dayudu segments (H15) and Sanmenxia segments (H17), one can find the high concentration of ∑Fe and Fe-1 in the surface sediments, when the concentration of TPM decrease, such as in the upper reaches of the Yellow River Wuhai segments (H7) and Sanshenggong segments (H8), the concentration of ∑Fe and Fe-1 in the surface sediments is low. The results indicate that the artificial dams in the Yellow River Basin cause the changes of TPM concentration in the water, and also lead to non negligible impact on the iron cycle in the Yellow River. © 2015, Chinese Society for Environmental Sciences. All right reserved.


Xing D.,Jining Normal College
Hongwai yu Jiguang Gongcheng/Infrared and Laser Engineering | Year: 2015

To further explore enhanced Raman scattering of surface metallic photonic crystal fiber, a model in FDTD of flat structure was built, using observed phenomenon of super-transmissive Raman scattering theory. In the photonic crystal surface of metal terahertz electromagnetic experiments, it is obtained that the greater energy of incident wave, excitation of surface plasmon resonance is more, surface metal can be achieved in the reinforcing effect which is greatly enhanced; Raman scattering effect is obvious by terahertz band, and the effect of the absorption spectrum and fluorescence effects are relatively small, which can significantly improve the sensitivity and resolution. ©, 2015, Chinese Society of Astronautics. All right reserved.

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