Jinan Survey Bureau of Hydrology and Water Resources

Jinan, China

Jinan Survey Bureau of Hydrology and Water Resources

Jinan, China
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Liu L.,Beijing Normal University | Liu L.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Hydrological Cycle and Sponge City Technology | Xu Z.,Beijing Normal University | Xu Z.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Hydrological Cycle and Sponge City Technology | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2017

Assessment of the health of urban streams is an important theoretical and practical topic, which is related to the impacts of physiochemical processes, hydrological modifications, and the biological community. However, previous assessments of the urban water quality were predominantly conducted by measuring physical and chemical factors rather than biological monitoring. The purpose of this study was to develop an urban stream multimetric index (USMI) based on benthic macroinvertebrates to assess the health of aquatic ecosystem in Jinan City. Two hundred and eighty-eight samples were collected during two consecutive years (2014–2015) from 48 sites located within the city. Metrics related to the benthic macroinvertebrate richness, diversity, composition and abundance, and functional feeding groups were selected by using box-plots and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The final index derived from selected metrics was divided into five river quality classes (excellent, good, moderate, poor, and bad). A validation procedure using box-plots and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test showed that the USMI was useful to assess the health of urban streams. © 2017, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Zhao C.S.,Beijing Normal University | Zhao C.S.,Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Hydrological Cycle and Sponge City Technology | Zhang C.B.,Beijing Normal University | Yang S.T.,Beijing Normal University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2017

Intense human activity has led to serious degradation of basin water ecosystems and severe reduction in the river flow available for aquatic biota. As an important water ecosystem index, environmental flows (e-flows) are crucial for maintaining sustainability. However, most e-flow measurement methods involve long cycles, low efficiency, and transdisciplinary expertise. This makes it impossible to rapidly assess river e-flows at basin or larger scales. This study presents a new method to rapidly assessing e-flows coupling UAV and ground monitorings. UAV was firstly used to calculate river-course cross-sections with high-resolution stereoscopic images. A dominance index was then used to identify key fish species. Afterwards a habitat suitability index, along with biodiversity and integrity indices, was used to determine an appropriate flow velocity with full consideration of the fish spawning period. The cross-sections and flow velocity values were then combined into AEHRA, an e-flow assessment method for studying e-flows and supplying-rate. To verify the results from this new method, the widely used Tennant method was employed. The root-mean-square errors of river cross-sections determined by UAV are less than 0.25 m, which constitutes 3–5% water-depth of the river cross-sections. In the study area of Jinan city, the ecological flow velocity (VE) is equal to or greater than 0.11 m/s, and the ecological water depth (HE) is greater than 0.8 m. The river ecosystem is healthy with the minimum e-flow requirements being always met when it is close to large rivers, which is beneficial for the sustainable development of the water ecosystem. In the south river channel of Jinan, the upstream flow mostly meets the minimum e-flow requirements, and the downstream flow always meets the minimum e-flow requirements. The north of Jinan consists predominantly of artificial river channels used for irrigation. Rainfall rarely meets the minimum e-flow and irrigation water requirements. We suggest that the water shortage problem can be partly solved by diversion of the Yellow River. These results can provide useful information for ecological operations and restoration. The method used in this study for calculating e-flow based on a combination of UAV and ground monitoring can effectively promote research progress into basin e-flow, and provide an important reference for e-flow monitoring around the world. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Zhao C.S.,Beijing Normal University | Yang S.T.,Beijing Normal University | Zhang H.T.,Dongying Bureau of Hydrology and Water Resources | Liu C.M.,Beijing Normal University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2017

Sustaining adequate environmental flows (e-flows) is a key principle for maintaining river biodiversity and ecosystem health, and for supporting sustainable water resource management in basins under intensive human activities. But few methods could correctly relate river health to e-flows assessment at the catchment scale when they are applied to rivers highly impacted by human activities. An effective method is presented in this study to closely link river health to e-flows assessment for rivers at the catchment scale. Key fish species, as indicators of ecosystem health, were selected by using the foodweb model. A multi-species-based habitat suitability model (MHSI) was improved, and coupled with dominance of the key fish species as well as the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) to enhance its accuracy in determining the fish-preferred key hydrologic habitat variables related to ecosystem health. Taking 5964 fish samples and concurrent hydrological habitat variables as the basis, the combination of key variables of flow-velocity and water-depth were determined and used to drive the Adapted Ecological Hydraulic Radius Approach (AEHRA) to study e-flows in a Chinese urban river impacted by intensive human activities. Results showed that upstream urbanization resulted in abnormal river-course geomorphology and consequently abnormal e-flows under intensive human activities. Selection of key species based on the foodweb and trophic levels of aquatic ecosystems can reflect a comprehensive requirement on e-flows of the whole aquatic ecosystem, which greatly increases its potential to be used as a guidance tool for rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems at large spatial scales. These findings have significant ramifications for catchment e-flows assessment under intensive human activities and for river ecohealth restoration in such rivers globally. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Zhao C.S.,Beijing Normal University | Yang S.T.,Beijing Normal University | Xiang H.,Jinan Survey Bureau of Hydrology and Water Resources | Liu C.M.,Beijing Normal University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2015

Aquatic ecological rehabilitation is attracting increasing public and research attention, but without knowledge of the responses of aquatic species to their habitats the success of habitat restoration is uncertain. Thus efficient study of species response to habitat, through which to prioritize the habitat factors influencing aquatic ecosystems, is highly important. However many current models have too high requirement for assemblage information and have great bias in results due to consideration of only the species' attribute of presence/absence, abundance or biomass, thus hindering the wider utility of these models. This paper, using fish as a case, presents a framework for identification of high-priority habitat factors based on the responses of aquatic species to their habitats, using presence/absence, abundance and biomass data. This framework consists of four newly developed sub-models aiming to determine weightings for the evaluation of species' contributions to their communities, to quantitatively calculate an integrated habitat suitability index for multi-species based on habitat factors, to assess the suitable probability of habitat factors and to assess the rehabilitation priority of habitat factors. The framework closely links hydrologic, physical and chemical habitat factors to fish assemblage attributes drawn from monitoring datasets on hydrology, water quality and fish assemblages at a total of 144 sites, where 5084 fish were sampled and tested. Breakpoint identification techniques based on curvature in cumulated dominance along with a newly developed weighting calculation model based on theory of mass systems were used to help identify the dominant fish, based on which the presence and abundance of multiple fish were normalized to estimate the integrated habitat suitability index along gradients of various factors, based on their variation with principal habitat factors. Then, the appropriate probability of every principal habitat factor was estimated and graded, and the priority of habitat factors for rehabilitation was determined. Application of the model to Jinan City, a pilot city for the construction of a civilized and ecological city in China, proved effective, revealing that carbonate is the poorest habitat factor and has the highest priority for ecological rehabilitation. This was tested using two methods: alternative priority models and a dataset of all habitat factors in place of only the principal habitat factors. We also found that hydrological factors have higher priority than the water quality factors at the levels of both the whole city and its subordinate eco-regions and therefore that hydrological factors deserve special attention in the future ecosystem rehabilitation. Further, the current habitat state makes nearly half of the habitats in Jinan City undesirable for fish communities, largely due to long-term agricultural practices. Spatially, rivers in the mountainous region south of Jinan city and adjacent to the urban area and rivers in the agricultural region north of the city should be emphasized in future habitat rehabilitation. All of these findings have substantial ramifications for the rehabilitation of aquatic ecosystems in Jinan City as a reference for river ecological remediation in rivers with scarce ecological data worldwide. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Yu S.,Beijing Normal University | Xu Z.,Beijing Normal University | Xu Z.,Joint Center for Global Changes Studies | Liu X.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2015

Freshwater ecoregion is currently widely used by biologists, conservators and resource managers. Most of ecoregion delineations are developed at the basin scale and are not fully adapted in a practical manner because operational water resources management is primarily conducted by political administrative departments. In this study, an ecoregion delineation framework was proposed to classify three-level ecoregions in Jinan City with geographic information systems and cluster analysis. The first level ecoregion was composed of three watersheds (a part of the Yellow River, Xiaoqing River and Tuhaimajia River) plus the urban area, which was primarily determined on the basis of the city administrative divisions and river watersheds. The classification of the second level ecoregion is primarily based on the spatial heterogeneity of land use. The third level ecoregion was delineated for each second level ecoregion by using the cluster analysis on water quality. At the same time, administrative boundaries were used to rectify the boundaries of each ecoregion in this study to facilitate the administration of each ecoregion. Furthermore, ecological health assessment (IBI) based on fish communities were employed to validate the freshwater ecoregion. The results demonstrated that 73.3% of ecoregions were in line with the distribution of fish IBI, indicating that the freshwater ecoregions are acceptable for future water resources management. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Zhao C.S.,Beijing Normal University | Yang S.T.,Beijing Normal University | Liu C.M.,Beijing Normal University | Dou T.W.,Jinan Survey Bureau of Hydrology and Water Resources | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2015

Aquatic ecological rehabilitation is increasingly attracting considerable public and research attention. An effective method that requires less data and expertise would help in the assessment of rehabilitation potential and in the monitoring of rehabilitation activities as complicated theories and excessive data requirements on assemblage information make many current assessment models expensive and limit their wide use. This paper presents an assessment model for restoration potential which successfully links hydrologic, physical and chemical habitat factors to fish assemblage attributes drawn from monitoring datasets on hydrology, water quality and fish assemblages at a total of 144 sites, where 5084 fish were sampled and tested. In this model three newly developed sub-models, integrated habitat index (. IHSI), integrated ecological niche breadth (. INB) and integrated ecological niche overlap (. INO), are established to study spatial heterogeneity of the restoration potential of fish assemblages based on gradient methods of habitat suitability index and ecological niche models. To reduce uncertainties in the model, as many fish species as possible, including important native fish, were selected as dominant species with monitoring occurring over several seasons to comprehensively select key habitat factors. Furthermore, a detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) was employed prior to a canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of the data to avoid the "arc effect" in the selection of key habitat factors. Application of the model to data collected at Jinan City, China proved effective reveals that three lower potential regions that should be targeted in future aquatic ecosystem rehabilitation programs. They were well validated by the distribution of two habitat parameters: river width and transparency. River width positively influenced and transparency negatively influenced fish assemblages. The model can be applied for monitoring the effects of fish assemblage restoration. This has large ramifications for the restoration of aquatic ecosystems and spatial heterogeneity of fish assemblages all over the world. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Zhao C.S.,Beijing Normal University | Zhao C.S.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Liu C.M.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Liu C.M.,Beijing Normal University | And 4 more authors.
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply | Year: 2013

A new approach by combining bioindicators (BiI) and biotic indices (BIs) for evaluating water quality is presented in this paper. It is then applied to the Huai River Basin (HRB), China, which is well-known globally for its heavy anthropogenic influences. Results indicate that the spatial distribution of BI-indicated water quality has roughly the same pattern as that shown by BiI, but the pollution level using BI was, on average, greater than that by BiI; the northern plain area has a degraded water quality (ranging from 'a-mesosaprobic' to 'a-polysaprobic' in a wet season) while the southern mountain area and the southern part of the East Line of the South-North Water Transfer Project has a better water quality ('β-mesosaprobic'). Water quality is worse in the dry season than in the wet season. We concluded that zoobenthos and zooplankton are more reliable indicators of water quality; biological indices are more sensitive to water quality but less reliable than BiI. These results will be of use in the ecological restoration of the Huai River and benefit water resource management in HRB in the future.© IWA Publishing 2013 Water Science and Technology: Water Supply.

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