Jimma, Ethiopia
Jimma, Ethiopia

Jimma University is a public university located in Jimma, Ethiopia. It is recognized as the leading national university, as ranked first by the Federal Ministry of Education for four successive years .The University offers various programs and courses of study, which lead toward degrees in different fields. It was established in December 1999 following the amalgamation of the Jimma College of Agriculture and the Jimma Institute of Health science .Jimma University is well known for the natural atmosphere of its campuses. While urban campuses, there are indeed in the middle of tropical forests, and thus, home of untamed animals such as monkeys. Friendly life of such animals with human has created a unique atmosphere in the academic environment of the university. Wikipedia.

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Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-39-2015 | Award Amount: 3.17M | Year: 2016

Malaria is a life-threatening disease causing more than 500,000 deaths every year in sub-Saharan Africa. Prevention of the disease is best achieved by vector control which relies on the use of insecticides. Monitoring mosquito vector populations is an integral component of control programmes and a prerequisite for effective interventions. Several individual methods are used for this task, However, there are obstacles to their uptake, as well as challenges in organizing, interpreting and communicating vector control data. We will develop a fully integrated and automated multiplex vector-diagnostic platform (LabDisk) for monitoring the species ID, the infection status of mosquitoes and the insecticide resistance profile of malaria vector populations. The system will provide sample-to-answer determinations, and it will perform genotyping at substantially lower cost, compared to the assays that are currently used in Africa. The LabDisk will be interfaced with a Disease Data Management System (DDMS), custom made data management software which will collect data from routine entomological monitoring activities, store, and make available stratified information based on user queries in a standardized way. The GAME, a modern ICT platform that employs interactive ways of communicating guidelines and exemplifying good practices of successful use of interventions in the health sector will be also employed, to teach operational end users the use of data to make informed decisions. The integrated system (LabDisk, DDMS & Game) will be implemented in four sub-Saharan African countries, highly representative of malaria settings and vector control problems, to support informed decision-making about vector control and disease management. It will cover the urgent needs of an existing market and will provide solution to end users, to address a most important societal challenge in Africa, the control of malaria. The system has a vast expansion potential in other applications.

Berhan Y.,Hawassa University | Haileamlak A.,Jimma University
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2016

Background The mode of delivery in term singleton breech presentation has been debated for more than half a century and has been examined in both randomised and observational studies. Objective To determine the absolute and relative risks of perinatal mortality and morbidity in planned vaginal breech delivery. Search strategy A computer-based literature search was conducted mainly in the databases of HINARI, PubMed and Google scholar for studies comparing planned vaginal delivery and planned caesarean section. Selection criteria Studies that assessed the perinatal mortality and morbidity in relation to the term singleton breech mode of delivery between 1993 and 2014 were included. Data collection and analysis In this meta-analysis, 27 articles with a total sample size of 258 953 women were included. Relative and absolute risks of perinatal mortality and morbidity in relation to mode of delivery were determined. Main results The relative risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity was about two- to five-fold higher in the planned vaginal than in the planned caesarean delivery group. The absolute risks of perinatal mortality, fetal neurologic morbidity, birth trauma, 5-minute Apgar score <7 and neonatal asphyxia in the planned vaginal delivery group were 0.3, 0.7, 0.7, 2.4 and 3.3%, respectively. Conclusion Perinatal mortality and morbidity in the planned vaginal breech delivery were significantly higher than with planned caesarean delivery. Even taking into account the relatively low absolute risks of vaginal breech delivery, the current study substantiates the practice of individualised decision-making on the route of delivery in a term breech presentation. Tweetable abstract Although vaginal breech delivery is controversial, this review has shown low absolute risk. Tweetable abstract Although vaginal breech delivery is controversial, this review has shown low absolute risk. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

Leadership style of nurse managers plays a significant role in nurses' job satisfaction. However, there is limited literature in areas related to nurses' manager leadership style. The objective of this research was thus to investigate the relationship between leadership style of nurse managers and nurses' job satisfaction in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. The study was conducted at Jimma University Specialized Hospital from January to June 2012 and used a non-experimental correlation design. All full time, non-supervisory nurses with an experience of more than one year in nursing profession were participated in the study. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire were used to collect data. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version16.0 statistical software. The results were analyzed through descriptive statistics followed by the application of inferential statistics on the variables. Significance level was considered when p<0.05. A total of 175 copies of the questionnaires were returned out of 186 copies distributed to respondents. The result indicated that nurses can prefer transformational leadership style over transactional leadership style and had moderate-level intrinsic (M=2.72, SD=0.71) but low level of extrinsic job satisfaction (M=1.83, SD=0.68). Furthermore, from transactional leadership, only contingent reward was found to be statically significant and correlated with extrinsic (B=0.45, p<0.01) and intrinsic job satisfaction (B=0.32, p<0.05) while all five dimension of transformational leadership style were statistically significant and correlated with both intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. Nurses tended to be more satisfied with the transformational leadership than transactional leadership style. Therefore, nurses' managers should use transformational leadership style in order to increase nurses' job satisfaction.

Abate K.H.,Jimma University
Ethiopian journal of health sciences | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Many people are unable to withstand the set point for usual vicissitudes of life and are overwhelmed by depression, especially when there is a potential stressor like a disease. Gender is very important in defining susceptibility and exposure to a number of mental health risks. The objective of this review is to systematically identify, appraise and synthesize the best available evidence on gender disparity in prevalence of depression among patient populations.METHODS: Observational analytical studies done on patients of 18 years old were included. The JBI-MAStARI tool for extraction was used to pool quantitative data. Review Manager Software was used for meta-analysis and Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated.RESULT: On Meta-analysis, a total of 19639 patients were involved, with male to female ratio of 1.14:1. The finding of the Meta analysis showed that male sex is 63% less likely to develop depression than female sex (Odds ratio=0.63, 95% Confidence Interval= 0.59, 0.68). The studies included were homogenous; Heterogeneity test: Chi(2) = 309.23, df = 30, (P < 0.00001).CONCLUSION: Depression is more common among females than male patients.

In resource limited settings, many People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) lack access to sufficient quantities of nutritious foods, which poses additional challenges to the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Maintaining adequate food consumption and nutrient intake levels and meeting the special nutritional needs to cope up with the disease and the ART are critical for PLWHA to achieve the full benefit of such a treatment. To determine the prevalence and correlates of food insecurity among HIV-infected individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings. A cross sectional study was carried out from January 1, 2009 to March 3, 2009 at ART clinic at Jimma University specialized hospital (JUSH) in Ethiopia. We used multivariable logistic regression model to compare independent risk factors by food insecurity status among 319 adult PLWHA (≥ 18 years) attending ART Clinic. A total of 319 adult PLWHA participated in the study giving a response rate of 100%. Out of 319 PLWHA the largest numbers of participants, 46.4% were in the age group of 25-34 years. The overall 201(63.0%) PLWHA were food insecure. Educational status of elementary or lower [OR = 3.10 (95%CI; (1.68-5.71)], average family monthly income <100 USD [OR = 13.1 (95% CI; (4.29-40.0)] and lower food diversity [OR = 2.18 (95%CI; (1.21-3.99)] were significantly and independently associated with food insecurity. Food insecurity is a significant problem among PLWHA on HAART. Lower educational status and low family income were the predictors of food insecurity. Food security interventions should be an integral component of HIV/AIDS care and support programs. Special attention need to be given to patients who have lower educational status and are members of households with low income.

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a major public health problem with serious consequences. This study was conducted to assess the magnitude of IPV in Southwest Ethiopia in predominantly rural community. This community based cross-sectional study was conducted in May, 2009 in Southwest Ethiopia using the World Health Organization core questionnaire to measure violence against women. Trained data collectors interviewed 851 ever-married women. Stata version 10.1 software and SPSS version 12.0.1 for windows were used for data analysis. In this study the life time prevalence of sexual or physical partner violence, or both was 64.7% (95%CI: 61.4%-67.9%). The lifetime sexual violence [50.1% (95% CI: 46.7%-53.4%)] was considerably more prevalent than physical violence [41.1% (95%:37.8-44.5)]. A sizable proportion [41.5%(95%CI: 38.2%-44.8%)] of women reported physical or sexual violence, or both, in the past year. Men who were controlling were more likely to be violent against their partner. Physical and sexual violence is common among ever-married women in Southwest Ethiopia. Interventions targeting controlling men might help in reducing IPV. Further prospective longitudinal studies among ever-married women are important to identify predictors and to study the dynamics of violence over time.

Background: Raised intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only causal risk factor for glaucoma that can be therapeutically manipulated to change the course of the disease process. Though Goldman applanation tonometry (GAT) is the "gold standard" for IOP measurement, readings of IOP with GAT are affected by central corneal thickness (CCT). The aim of this study is to determine the impact of CCT on IOP among Ethiopian glaucoma patients. Methods. It was a multicenter cross-sectional study and all glaucoma patients visiting their respective eye clinic during the study period were included. A total of 199 randomly selected glaucomatous eyes from 199 patients aged 18 years and above were employed. The CCT was measured by OcuScan™ RxP Ophthalmic Ultrasound and IOP was measured with Goldmann applanation tonometer. Linear regression and bivariate correlation analysis were carried out and level of significance was taken at 5%. Results: The mean IOP was 19.46(±7.05) mmHg and mean CCT was 508.07(±33.26) μm. The mean IOP for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), ocular hypertension (OHT), normal tension glaucoma (NTG), pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG) and primary chronic angle closure glaucoma (PCAG) patients was 19.22 mmHg, 21.39 mmHg, 14.33 mmHg, 33.25 mmHg and 14.75 mmHg respectively. The mean CCT values were 502.24 μm (POAG), 524.32 μm (OHT), 500.75 μm (NTG), 579.00 μm (PXG) and 530.25 μm (PCAG). Age of the patient and glaucoma surgery had an influence on corneal thickness. A positive relationship was found between CCT and IOP (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The mean CCT of Ethiopian glaucoma patients is thin in comparison to other ethnic groups and patients with OHT have thicker corneas than POAG patients. Hence determination of CCT for each patient is necessary in the up-to-date glaucoma management. © 2012 Gelaw; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Background: The counterfeiting of anti-malarials represents a form of attack on global public health in which fake and substandard anti-malarials serve as de facto weapons of mass destruction, particularly in resource-constrained endemic settings, where malaria causes nearly 660,000 preventable deaths and threatens millions of lives annually. It has been estimated that fake anti-malarials contribute to nearly 450,000 preventable deaths every year. This crime against humanity is often underestimated or ignored. This study attempts to describe and characterize the direct and indirect effects of counterfeit anti-malarials on public health, clinical care and socio-economic conditions. Methods. A search was performed using key databases, WHO documents, and English language search engines. Of 262 potential articles that were identified using a fixed set of criteria, a convenience sample of 105 appropriate articles was selected for this review. Results: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is an important tool in the fight against malaria, but a sizable number of patients are unable to afford to this first-line treatment. Consequently, patients tend to procure cheaper anti-malarials, which may be fake or substandard. Forensic palynology reveals that counterfeits originate in Asia. Fragile drug regulations, ineffective law-enforcement agencies and corruption further burden ailing healthcare facilities. Substandard/fake anti-malarials can cause (a) economic sabotage; (b) therapeutic failure; (c) increased risk of the emergence and spread of resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax; (d) an undermining of trust/confidence in healthcare stakeholders/systems; and, (e) serious side effects or death. Conclusion: Combating counterfeit anti-malarials is a complex task due to limited resources and poor techniques for the detection and identification of fake anti-malarials. This situation calls for sustainable, global, scientific research and policy change. Further, responsible stakeholders in combination with the synthesis and supply of next generation malaria control tools, such as low-cost anti-malarials, must promote the development of a counterfeit-free and malaria-free future. © 2014Karunamoorthi; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Karunamoorthi K.,Jimma University | Karunamoorthi K.,Bharathiar University
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2011

Over many decades, malaria elimination has been considered to be one of the most ambitious goals of the international community. Vector control is a cornerstone in malaria control, owing to the lack of reliable vaccines, the emergence of drug resistance, and unaffordable potent antimalarials. In the recent past, a few countries have achieved malaria elimination by employing existing front-line vector control interventions and active case management. However, many challenges lie ahead on the long road to meaningful accomplishment, and the following issues must therefore be adequately addressed in malaria-prone settings in order to achieve our target of 100% worldwide malaria elimination and eventual eradication: (i) consistent administration of integrated vector management; (ii) identification of innovative user and environment-friendly alternative technologies and delivery systems; (iii) exploration and development of novel and powerful contextual community-based interventions; and (iv) improvement of the efficiency and efficacy of existing interventions and their combinations, such as vector control, diagnosis, treatment, vaccines, biological control of vectors, environmental management, and surveillance. I strongly believe that we are moving in the right direction, along with partnership-wide support, towards the enviable milestone of malaria elimination by employing vector control as a potential tool. © 2011 The Author. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

Anemia during pregnancy is a common problem in developing countries and affects both the mother's and her child's health. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and the factors associated with anemia among pregnant women. Facility based cross-sectional study design was conducted from June to August, 2011 on 374 pregnant women. Mothers who came for ANC during the study period and who met the inclusion criteria were interviewed and a capillary blood sample was taken. Hemoglobin level was determined by using HemoCue photometer, and interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were cleaned, coded and fed into SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. The mean hemoglobin concentration was 12.05±1.5 g/dl and prevalence of anemia was 36.6%. Family sizes (COR=2.67, CI (1.65, 4.32), third trimester (COR=1.45, CI (1.11, 2.23), meat consumption <1x/wk (COR=3.47, CI (1.58, 7.64) and pica (COR=2.33, CI (1.52, 3.58) were significantly associated with anemia. Having five or more children (AOR=5.2, CI [1.29, 21.09]), intake of vegetables and fruits less than once per day (AOR= 6.7, CI [2.49, 17.89]), intake of tea always after meal (AOR = 12.83.CI [45-28.9]), and recurrence of illness during pregnancy (AOR=7.3, CI [2.12-25.39]) were factors associated with anemia. This study showed that anemia is a moderate public health problem. Less frequent meat and vegetable consumption, parity ≥5 are risk factors for anemia. Therefore, reducing parity, taking balanced diet and use of mosquito nets during pregnancy are recommended.

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