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Lee S.-H.,Konkuk University | Yang H.-W.,Jeju National University | Ding Y.,Konkuk University | Wang Y.,Jilin Sino Rok Institute of Animal Science | And 4 more authors.
EXCLI Journal | Year: 2015

Enzymatic hydrolysis has been successfully used for the extraction of numerous biologically active components from a wide variety of natural sources. In the present study, velvet antler was subjected to the extraction process using Alcalase protease. We analyzed bioactive components, such as uronic acid, sulfated-glycosaminoglycans (sulfated-GAGs), and sialic acid, present in the velvet antler Alcalase hydrolysate (VAAH) and assessed their anti-inflammatory effects in zebrafish as well as in vitro using cell lines. VAAH mainly contained uronic acid (78.22 mg/g) and sulfated-GAGs (50.47 mg/g), while the amount of sialic acid was negligible (5.55 mg/g). VAAH inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cells in a dosedependent manner and the inhibitory effect of VAAH on NO production was higher than that of hot water extracts. VAAH treatment also reduced the expression of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Furthermore, we evaluated anti-inflammatory effects of VAAH using LPS-stimulated zebrafish. Treatment with LPS significantly increased cell death, NO, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in zebrafish. Notably, VAAH significantly inhibited the extent of LPS-stimulated cell death and generation of NO and ROS in zebrafish. These results suggest that VAAH alleviated inflammation and cell death by inhibiting the generation of ROS induced by LPS treatment. Thus, VAAH could be used as a potential natural remedy with a strong anti-inflammatory effect. Taken together, we believe that based on our present results, enzymatic hydrolysis of velvet antler may be an effective process to make antler products acceptable as elements of health foods and nutraceutical components with increased biological activity. © 2015, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors. All Rights Reserved. Source


Lee D.H.,Konkuk University | Hong H.,Konkuk University | Lodhi G.,Konkuk University | Cheong S.H.,Konkuk University | And 5 more authors.
Animal Production Science | Year: 2014

Collagen was extracted from the antler velvet of elk (Cervus elaphus). Two types of collagen were prepared namely, acetic acid-soluble collagen and pepsin-soluble collagen. The electrophoretic patterns of both of the collagens showed that they were heterotrimeric, i.e. they consisted of α1α2α3. The total yield of the collagen obtained from the elk antler velvet was 12.1%. Amino acid analysis of the collagen by high-performance liquid chromatography showed that imino acid content such as that of proline and hydroxyproline was high, which might contribute to better visco-elastic properties. The peptide mapping of the collagens showed their similarity with porcine Type I collagen, thereby suggesting that the primary structure of both collagens is identical to that of porcine skin Type I collagen. The thermal denaturation temperature was 37°C, which is comparable to porcine Type I collagen and may also be as a result of high imino acid content. © 2014 CSIRO. Source


Liu Y.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wang Y.,Jilin Sino Rok Institute of Animal Science | Sun L.,Jilin University | Zhang M.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Chemistry of Natural Compounds | Year: 2014

Four new steroidal saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris. Their structures were established by spectroscopic and chemical analysis as (25R)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furost-3β, 22α,26- triol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)[β-D- glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (1), (25R)-26- O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furost-20(22)-en-3β,26-diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)[β-Dglucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (2), (25S)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α- furost-20(22)-en-3β,26-diol 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-Dgalactopyranoside (3), and (25R)-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl- 5α-furost-20(22)-en-12-one-3β,26-diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl- (1 → 2)[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]β-D-galactopyranoside (4). © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Tang Y.,Konkuk University | Tang Y.,Jilin Sino Rok Institute of Animal Science | Jeon B.-T.,Konkuk University | Wang Y.,Jilin Sino Rok Institute of Animal Science | And 4 more authors.
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2015

Regrowth velvet antler (RVA) of sika deer (Cervus nippon) was subjected to the extraction process using 70% ethanol solution. RVA was divided into 3 segments: top RVA (T-RVA), middle RVA (M-RVA), and base RVA (B-RVA). Biologically active substances such as uronic acid, sulfated-glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), sialic acid, uridine, uracil and hypoxanthine in the extract was analyzed, and their antioxidant activities were investigated using multiple biochemical assays from three segments. The T-RVA section possessed the greatest amounts of uronic acid (97.04 mg/g), GAGs (832.14 mg/g), sialic acid (26.16 mg/g), uridine (5.77 mg/g), uracil (4.73 mg/g), and hypoxanthine (3.80 mg/g). In addition, the antioxidant activities were estimated. The TE values of DPPH, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl, ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) radical scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) from T-RVA were 48.781, 30.688, 42.637, 72.074 and 29.112 TE/μM at 1 mg/ml, respectively. The TE value of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) was 129.573 TE/μM at 20 μg/ml. These results indicate that the T-RVA section possesses the greatest amount of biologically active substances and the highest antioxidant potential. This is the first report on the bioactive components and antioxidant potential of RVA ethanol extract. Source


Tang Y.,Konkuk University | Tang Y.,Jilin Sino Rok Institute of Animal Science | Jeon B.-T.,Konkuk University | Wang Y.,Jilin Sino Rok Institute of Animal Science | And 6 more authors.
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources | Year: 2015

Deer velvet antler (DVA) is one of the most popular medicines in China. Numerous studies have demonstrated that velvet antler possess biological effects. However, data regarding its anti-migration activity on prostate cancer is scarce. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of top DVA (T-DVA) on the expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and migration-related genes in the human prostate cancer cell, LNCaP. The T-DVA down-regulated the expression of PSA. In addition, the Radius™ assay revealed that T-DVA inhibited the migration behavior of prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was also decreased with T-DVA. On the contrary, T-DVA increased the tissue inhibition of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and (TIMP)-2. Taken together, our findings indicate that the T-DVA possesses anti-migration activity on prostate cancer cells. This is the first study of DVA to report the anti-migration activity on prostate cancer. © 2015 Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Recources. Source

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