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Piao Z.,Jilin Changbai Mountain Academy of science | Swihart R.K.,Purdue University | Wang S.,Jilin Changbai Mountain Academy of science
Annals of Forest Science | Year: 2011

Introduction Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) is a dominant tree species in the cold temperate mixed forest zone in eastern Eurasia. Its seeds are food sources for wildlife but have become an important and marketable part of the economy for local communities. • Methods We conducted ecological surveys inside and around Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CMNR) each year following the legalization of pine seed harvesting in 2000-2005 and restrictions on pine seed harvesting in 2006-2009. • Results We found that human harvesting of pine cones was associated with declines in pine seed production and quality, pine regeneration, and populations of Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris), sable (Martes zibellina), and Siberian weasel (Mustela sibirica). • Discussion CMNR generally harbored greater wildlife populations than were found outside of its boundaries, but populations inside and outside of CMNR tended to decline in response to unrestricted cone harvesting. Enactment of restrictions on harvesting of cones in 2006 led to rebounds in populations of squirrel, sable, weasel, yellow-throated marten (Martes flavigula) and Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius) in CMNR relative to outside, concurrent with a reduced percent of seed being usurped by humans. However, harvest restrictions failed to diminish damage to trees by humans or seeds by insect pests, and regeneration of pine did not rebound. • Conclusion Our findings suggest that wildlife declines are reversible in the short-term, but long-term forest ecosystem stability is likely only if pine seed harvesting is either stopped or dramatically reduced on a permanent basis within CMNR. © INRA and Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.

Jin Y.,Northeast Normal University | Xu J.,Northeast Normal University | Wang Y.,University of Rhode Island | Wang S.,Jilin Changbai Mountain Academy of science | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Geographical Science | Year: 2016

In recent years, herbaceous species such as Deyeuxia angustifolia (Kom.) Y. L. Chang has invaded alpine tundra regions of the western slope of the Changbai Mountains. Because atmospheric nitrogen deposition is predicted to increase under a warming climate and D. angustifolia is sensitive to nitrogen addition, field experiments were conducted from 2010 to 2013 to determine the effect of increased nitrogen deposition on the mechanisms of D. angustifolia invasion. The goal of this study is to evaluate the impact of increased nitrogen deposition on the changes in alpine tundra vegetation (consisting mostly of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall. and Vaccinium uliginosum Linn.). The results showed that: 1) simulated nitrogen deposition affected overall characteristics and structure of R. chrysanthum and V. uliginosum communities and had a positive impact on the growth of tundra vegetation invaded by D. angustifolia; 2) R. chrysanthum was more resistant to invasion by D. angustifolia than V. uliginosum; 3) simulated nitrogen deposition could improve the growth and enhance the competitiveness of D. angustifolia, which was gradually replacing R. chrysanthum and V. uliginosum and might become the dominant species in the system in future, transforming alpine tundra into alpine meadow in the Changbai Mountains. © 2016, Science Press, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Tang L.,Chinese Institute of Urban Environment | Shao G.,Purdue University | Piao Z.,Jilin Changbai Mountain Academy of science | Dai L.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | And 5 more authors.
Biological Conservation | Year: 2010

Forest degradation in protected areas has been monitored around the world with remote sensing data, but degradation processes undetectable by widely used satellite sensors have been largely overlooked. Increased human pressures and socioeconomic development make forest protection more challenging, particularly for forest ecosystems that lie across national borders because of the differences in national socioeconomic policies and conditions within them. Here with Landsat data, Google Earth images, and field observations, we show that, in two adjacent biosphere reserves across the border of China and North Korea, over one half of primary forest landscapes have been deteriorated by exploitive uses, including seed harvesting and systematic logging. The combined effects of detectable and hidden degradation processes have further damaged forest ecosystems in the core areas in the two biosphere reserves, threatening sustainable biodiversity conservation in the region. It is urgent to develop cross-border collaborative conservation strategies that can help combat both detectable and hidden degradation processes at a regional scale. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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