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Guo R.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Guo R.,Key Laboratory of Dryland Agriculture | Zhou J.,Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation Center | Yang F.,Jilin Academy of Forestry science | And 7 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology | Year: 2016

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of drought stress on primary, secondary metabolites and metabolic pathways in the leaves of wheat, these parameters were evaluated to determine the physiological adaptive mechanisms by which wheat tolerates drought stress at the jointing-booting stage. Methods: A pot experiment was carried out in rain-proof shelter. The relative growth rate, photosynthetic characteristics and metabolism seedlings exposed to stresses lasting 12 days at jointing-booting stage were measured. Important findings: The results displayed that the photosynthesis decreased under drought stress, causing the decreases of relative growth rate and dry matter mass. Profiles of 64 key metabolites produced by wheat including organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, purine, etc. were examined, 29 of them were changed significantly under drought stress. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that 64% variations can be explained by the two principal components. One-way ANOVA analysis results revealed that long term drought stress decreased malic acid, citric acid and aconitic acid significantly, indicating inhibited tricarboxylic acid cycle. We further found that prolonged drought stress led to accumulation of progressive amino acids (proline, serine, valine) and carbohydrates (myo-inositol, fructose, clucose) in wheat leaves and depletion of transamination products (asparagine, glutamine, γ-aminobutyric acid). These results imply wheat may enhance its drought tolerance mainly by increasing amino acid biosynthesis and glycolysis under water-deficit conditions. Our findings suggest that drought condition altered metabolic networks including transamination, the tricarboxylic cycle, gluconeogenesis/glycolysis, glutamate-mediated proline biosynthesis, and the metabolisms of choline, pyrimidine and purine. This study provides new insights into the metabolic adaptation of wheat to drought stress and important information for developing drought-tolerant wheat cultivars. © Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology.


Zhang Y.,Jilin Academy of Forestry Science | Wang P.,Changchun Normal University | Bi Q.,Northeast Normal University | Zhang Z.,Jilin Academy of Forestry Science | Yang Y.,Northeast Normal University
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2016

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could improve the tolerance of plants under saline stress. However, the degree of this improvement might differ relative to salt stress intensity. We conducted an experiment to explore the ability of AMF to colonize Leymus chinensis roots and evaluate the effect of AMF inoculation on the growth of plants under four NaCl concentrations (0, 1, 2, and 3 g NaCl/kg soil). The mechanism behind the saline tolerance of mycorrhizal L. chinensis plants was also discussed in terms of their root:shoot ratio and ionic content. The inoculants used in this study were Glomus mosseae and G. geosporum, two dominant species found in highly saline-alkaline natural grasslands. Sixteen pots of inoculated L. chinensis seedlings were randomly subjected to one of four NaCl treatments, as were sixteen pots of noninoculated plants of the same species. The plants were harvested and measured after 75 d of growth. The results show that under high saline stress, the AMF significantly decreased the strength of the salinity response and increased plant biomass. The mycorrhizal growth response under high saline stress was significantly positive, which indicated that the AMF-plantsymbiotic relationship is important to plants under salt stress. However, the colonization rate and infection intensity of AMF in L. chinensis roots both decreased as salt stress increased. The ability of AMF to improve plant growth might decrease, and one-sided or mutually harmful negative effects might occur when salt stress becomes worse, because of the increasing intensity of the competition between AMF and plants. The AMF significantly increased the root:shoot ratio in each NaCl treatment. More photosynthetic product was allocated to the roots of mycorrhizal plants than those of non-mycorrhizal plants, which increased both the water and nutrient absorption, and transportation capacity of the AMF-plant symbiont. The reallocation of resources between roots and shoots might be one of the primary strategies used by mycorrhizal plants to increase their fitness under harsh environmental conditions. The higher N and P concentrations observed in mycorrhizal plants also support the idea that AMF help L. chinensis absorb and utilize more nutrients under saline stress. The concentrations of Na and Cl were both lower in mycorrhizal plants than in non-mycorrhizal plants, decreasing the ionic content of inoculated plants. Ca2+ and P/Na+ concentrations were higher in mycorrhizal plants under low saline stress, while the K+ and K+/Na+ concentrations were higher in mycorrhizal plants under high saline stress, indicating that the mycorrhiza could reduce the physiological drought response of plants under saline stress by adjusting their osmotic potential via absorbing other ions and/ or increasing ionic ratios such as K+ /Na+. The results also showed that the saline tolerance of mycorrhizal plants was increased by the mycorrhizal P response under lower saline stress, and by the mycorrhizal K response under high saline stress. This study has improved the understanding of the mechanism underlying the improved saline tolerance of mycorrhizal plants, and provides some guidelines for using AMF technology to restore saline-degraded grasslands. © 2016, Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved.


Li X.-P.,Jilin Academy of Forestry science | Song L.-W.,Jilin Academy of Forestry science | Zhang H.-H.,Changbaishan Academy of science | Chen Y.-Q.,Jilin Academy of Forestry science | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2012

Rapid cold hardening can enhance the cold tolerance of some insects. To explore the effects of different cold hardening induction temperature on the cold tolerance of Arma chinensis and related physiological mechanisms, the 3rd generation A. chinensis adults reared indoor were treated with cooling at 15, 10, and 4°C for 4 h, respectively, or with gradual cooling from 15°C for 4 h to 10°C for 4 h, and finally to 4°C for 4 h. The super-cooling point, water content, and the contents of low molecular carbohydrates, glycerol, and amino acids of the adults after cooling and the adults cold tolerance at 0, -5, and -10°C were measured by thermocouple, high performance liquid chromatography, and other analytical techniques. When exposed at -10°C after cooling, the survival rate of the adults treated with gradual cooling or treated with cooling at 4°C for 4 h was averagely 58. 3%, while that of the adults reared at room temperature (25°C±2°C) or treated with cooling at 15°C or 10°C for 4 h decreased significantly, with an average of 8. 9%. The super-cooling point of the adults treated with gradual cooling or with cooling at 4°C for 4 h was -15.6°C, which was averagely 1. 3°C lower than that of the other treatments. The water content of the adults had no significant difference among all treatments, with an average of 61. 8%, but the glucose, sorbitolum, glycerol, Ala, and Glu contents in treatments gradual cooling and cooling at 4°C for 4 h increased by 2. 82-fold, 2.65-fold, 3.49-fold, 51.3%, and 80.2%, while the fucose, mannose, and Pro contents decreased by 68.4%, 52.2%, and 30.2%, respectively, as compared with the other treatments. The fructose content showed no significant difference among all treatments. It was suggested that rapid cool hardening had a critical temperature to induce the physiological metabolism process of adult A. chinensis, and gradual cooling hardening could not further increase the cold tolerance of adult A. chinensis on the basis of rapid cool hardening.


Li S.C.,Jilin Academy of Forestry Science | Li F.M.,Jilin Academy of Forestry Science | Zhang L.M.,Jilin Academy of Forestry Science | Ren J.,Jilin Academy of Forestry Science | Lin Y.M.,Jilin Academy of Forestry Science
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2016

Phellodendron amurense Rupr. is a valuable timber species and a key species in the plant communities of Changbai Mountain in Jilin province; however, due to over-harvesting and utilization, its quantity and quality have clearly declined.. Therefore, based on its distribution on Changbai Mountain in Jilin province, 10 representative populations of P. amurense were selected, and their genetic diversity was investigated using the Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) technique. Using the ISSR data, the Nei and Shannon indices were determined to estimate the genetic variation of the 10 populations. This study aims to provide foundational data for preservation and protection of P. amurense. Using 60 ISSR primers to screen the 10 representative populations of P. amurense, 99 bands were amplified; 54 bands were polymorphic (54.5%). The polymorphism of the 10 populations ranged from 18.52% to 37.96%; the Hunchun population showed the greatest polymorphism, at 37.96%, the Lushuihe population showed the least, at 18.52%, and the average was 26.02%. The Shannon index ranged from 0.1103 to 0.1949, with an average of 0.1522. The Nei index ranged from 0.0759 to 0.1327, with an average of 0.1043. According to Nei's method calculation of Phellodendron amurense 10 population genetic diversity is the DST = 0.1586, the differentiation index (CST = 0.6183, gene flow coefficient nm is 0.3086… The total genetic variation of 61.83% of the variation existed among populations, and the variation within population was only 38.17%..A cluster map of the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPCMA) relationships, using the ISSRs as molecular markers, was constructed. The 10 populations could be divided into two groups: 1) Songjianghe, Lushuihe, Wangou, Ji-an, and Huinan provinces, and 2) Baishi Shan, Wangqing, Antu, Yanji, and Hunchun provinces. Based on the genetic structure of P. amurense, protection measures were put forward, including guidance to create a medicinal or timber forestry. The local plant resources background investigation and summary of resources (including compartments, subcompartments, each plant's age, height, diameter, height under crown and crown). To select the local dominant groups to carry on in situ conservation. Ex situ conservation strategies should be used to increase the number of individuals; in the Baishan area, the Songjianghe, Lushuihe provinces should be selected, in the Tonghua Area,the Ji-an provinces should be selected,in the Yanbian area, the Wangqing and Baishi Shan provinces should be selected. Artificial propagation of P. amurense should be used to promote the gradual recovery of populations, and resource manual registration should be established. © 2016, Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Jilin Academy of Forestry science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology | Year: 2012

Rapid cold hardening can enhance the cold tolerance of some insects. To explore the effects of different cold hardening induction temperature on the cold tolerance of Arma chinensis and related physiological mechanisms, the 3rd generation A. chinensis adults reared indoor were treated with cooling at 15, 10, and 4 degrees C for 4 h, respectively, or with gradual cooling from 15 degrees C for 4 h to 10 degrees C for 4 h, and finally to 4 degrees C for 4 h. The super-cooling point, water content, and the contents of low molecular carbohydrates, glycerol, and amino acids of the adults after cooling and the adults cold tolerance at 0, -5, and -10 degrees C were measured by thermocouple, high performance liquid chromatography, and other analytical techniques. When exposed at -10 degrees C after cooling, the survival rate of the adults treated with gradual cooling or treated with cooling at 4 degrees C for 4 h was averagely 58.3%, while that of the adults reared at room temperature (25 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C) or treated with cooling at 15 degrees C or 10 degrees C for 4 h decreased significantly, with an average of 8.9%. The super-cooling point of the adults treated with gradual cooling or with cooling at 4 degrees C for 4 h was -15.6 degrees C, which was averagely 1.3 degrees C lower than that of the other treatments. The water content of the adults had no significant difference among all treatments, with an average of 61.8%, but the glucose, sorbitolum, glycerol, Ala, and Glu contents in treatments gradual cooling and cooling at 4 degrees C for 4 h increased by 2.82-fold, 2.65-fold, 3.49-fold, 51.3%, and 80.2%, while the fucose, mannose, and Pro contents decreased by 68.4%, 52.2%, and 30.2%, respectively, as compared with the other treatments. The fructose content showed no significant difference among all treatments. It was suggested that rapid cool hardening had a critical temperature to induce the physiological metabolism process of adult A. chinensis, and gradual cooling hardening could not further increase the cold tolerance of adult A. chinensis on the basis of rapid cool hardening.

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