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Li X.-P.,Jilin Academy of Forestry science | Song L.-W.,Jilin Academy of Forestry science | Zhang H.-H.,Changbaishan Academy of Science | Chen Y.-Q.,Jilin Academy of Forestry science | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2012

Rapid cold hardening can enhance the cold tolerance of some insects. To explore the effects of different cold hardening induction temperature on the cold tolerance of Arma chinensis and related physiological mechanisms, the 3rd generation A. chinensis adults reared indoor were treated with cooling at 15, 10, and 4°C for 4 h, respectively, or with gradual cooling from 15°C for 4 h to 10°C for 4 h, and finally to 4°C for 4 h. The super-cooling point, water content, and the contents of low molecular carbohydrates, glycerol, and amino acids of the adults after cooling and the adults cold tolerance at 0, -5, and -10°C were measured by thermocouple, high performance liquid chromatography, and other analytical techniques. When exposed at -10°C after cooling, the survival rate of the adults treated with gradual cooling or treated with cooling at 4°C for 4 h was averagely 58. 3%, while that of the adults reared at room temperature (25°C±2°C) or treated with cooling at 15°C or 10°C for 4 h decreased significantly, with an average of 8. 9%. The super-cooling point of the adults treated with gradual cooling or with cooling at 4°C for 4 h was -15.6°C, which was averagely 1. 3°C lower than that of the other treatments. The water content of the adults had no significant difference among all treatments, with an average of 61. 8%, but the glucose, sorbitolum, glycerol, Ala, and Glu contents in treatments gradual cooling and cooling at 4°C for 4 h increased by 2. 82-fold, 2.65-fold, 3.49-fold, 51.3%, and 80.2%, while the fucose, mannose, and Pro contents decreased by 68.4%, 52.2%, and 30.2%, respectively, as compared with the other treatments. The fructose content showed no significant difference among all treatments. It was suggested that rapid cool hardening had a critical temperature to induce the physiological metabolism process of adult A. chinensis, and gradual cooling hardening could not further increase the cold tolerance of adult A. chinensis on the basis of rapid cool hardening.

Li S.C.,Jilin Academy of Forestry science | Li F.M.,Jilin Academy of Forestry science | Zhang L.M.,Jilin Academy of Forestry science | Ren J.,Jilin Academy of Forestry science | Lin Y.M.,Jilin Academy of Forestry science
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2016

Phellodendron amurense Rupr. is a valuable timber species and a key species in the plant communities of Changbai Mountain in Jilin province; however, due to over-harvesting and utilization, its quantity and quality have clearly declined.. Therefore, based on its distribution on Changbai Mountain in Jilin province, 10 representative populations of P. amurense were selected, and their genetic diversity was investigated using the Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) technique. Using the ISSR data, the Nei and Shannon indices were determined to estimate the genetic variation of the 10 populations. This study aims to provide foundational data for preservation and protection of P. amurense. Using 60 ISSR primers to screen the 10 representative populations of P. amurense, 99 bands were amplified; 54 bands were polymorphic (54.5%). The polymorphism of the 10 populations ranged from 18.52% to 37.96%; the Hunchun population showed the greatest polymorphism, at 37.96%, the Lushuihe population showed the least, at 18.52%, and the average was 26.02%. The Shannon index ranged from 0.1103 to 0.1949, with an average of 0.1522. The Nei index ranged from 0.0759 to 0.1327, with an average of 0.1043. According to Nei's method calculation of Phellodendron amurense 10 population genetic diversity is the DST = 0.1586, the differentiation index (CST = 0.6183, gene flow coefficient nm is 0.3086… The total genetic variation of 61.83% of the variation existed among populations, and the variation within population was only 38.17%..A cluster map of the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPCMA) relationships, using the ISSRs as molecular markers, was constructed. The 10 populations could be divided into two groups: 1) Songjianghe, Lushuihe, Wangou, Ji-an, and Huinan provinces, and 2) Baishi Shan, Wangqing, Antu, Yanji, and Hunchun provinces. Based on the genetic structure of P. amurense, protection measures were put forward, including guidance to create a medicinal or timber forestry. The local plant resources background investigation and summary of resources (including compartments, subcompartments, each plant's age, height, diameter, height under crown and crown). To select the local dominant groups to carry on in situ conservation. Ex situ conservation strategies should be used to increase the number of individuals; in the Baishan area, the Songjianghe, Lushuihe provinces should be selected, in the Tonghua Area,the Ji-an provinces should be selected,in the Yanbian area, the Wangqing and Baishi Shan provinces should be selected. Artificial propagation of P. amurense should be used to promote the gradual recovery of populations, and resource manual registration should be established. © 2016, Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved.

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