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Vilaichone R.,Thammasat University | Yamaoka Y.,Oita University | Yamaoka Y.,Baylor College of Medicine | Shiota S.,Oita University | And 5 more authors.
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

Aim: To survey the antibiotic resistance pattern of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains isolated from Bhutanese population. Methods: We isolated 111 H. pylori strains from the gastric mucosa of H. pylori -infected patients in Bhutan in 2010. The Epsilometer test was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of amoxicillin (AMX), clarithromycin (CLR), metronidazole (MNZ), levofloxacin (LVX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), and tetracycline (TET). Results: Nineteen of the isolated H. pylori strains were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. The isolated strains showed the highest rate of antibiotic resistance to MNZ (92/111, 82.9%). Among the 92 MNZresistant strains, 74 strains (80.4%) showed high-level resistance (MIC ≥ 256 μg/mL). Three strains were resistance to LVX (2.7%). These strains were also resistance to CIP. None of the strains showed resistance to CLR, AMX and TET. Conclusion: CLR-based triple therapy is a more effective treatment approach over MNZ-based triple therapy for H. pylori infection in Bhutan. © 2013 Baishideng. All rights reserved.


Dhungel B.M.,Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Referral Hospital
International Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2014

Inflammatory cap polyposis (ICP) is a rare nonneoplastic polyposis of the colon of unknown etiology that can be confused with prolapse-induced polyps and hyperplastic polyposis. We contribute a case of ICP from a 59-year-old woman who was affected by severe constipation and hematochezia. Numerous sessile and semipedunculated polyps were found in the colon, all with cap of whitish fibrin. Histology revealed erosion of the surface, superficial dilated crypts filled with mucoid inflammatory exudate, and minimal crypt serration, all findings typical of ICP. Only the largest polyps had smooth muscle in the mucosa. Ki-67 showed modest expansion and irregular distribution of the crypts proliferative areas. Lowdegree positivity for p16, similar to that of hyperplastic polyps, was found. CK20 was expressed as in normal mucosa. Distinguishing between ICP and other polyposis is important because of difference in management. © The Author(s) 2013.


Dhungel B.M.,Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Referral Hospital
International Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2013

A significant mimicker of malignancy in the esophagus is the presence of atypical/bizarre stromal cells (BSCs). Two patients, a 60-year-old woman and a 59-year-old man, with esophageal polyps at the gastroesophageal junction showed highly atypical/bizarre cells in the polyps' stroma. BSCs were admixed with inflammatory cells and had large atypical nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and variably abundant amphophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical studies showed that BSCs expressed vimentin whereas S-100, CD68, HMB45, CD45, Pan-cytokeratin, CK5/6, p63, CD10, EMA, MART-1, desmin, smooth muscle actin, CD31, CD34, and CMV were negative. Ki-67 showed low proliferative rate (less than 1% positivity). No evidence of intracellular mucin was found after histochemical stains (AB/PAS and mucicarmine). Follow-up endoscopic mucosal resection was available in both cases and showed benign esophageal mucosa and submucosa with disappearance, in one case, or marked decrease of BSCs. Esophageal BSCs reports in the literature invariably locate them in distal esophagus polyps or masses. Awareness of BSCs, of their location and associations, may help to prevent misdiagnosis of malignancy. The literature of esophageal BSCs is reviewed and the approach to this abnormality is discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.


Gatius Caldero S.,Hospital Arnau Of Vilanova | Xiao S.-Y.,University of Chicago | Dhungel B.M.,Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Referral Hospital
International Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2014

Abnormalities of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract due to drugs (AGIDs) are numerous and have significant impact. The aim of this narrative review is to help the practicing surgical pathologist recognize selected AGIDs. The adverse drug effects presented were chosen with an emphasis on recent and significant pathological and clinical contributions. The selection was based on a thorough review of the PUBMED-based literature and on the authors' opinions and experience. In the first part of the review, diagnostic abnormalities due to crystals (eg, iron, biphosphonates, nonsystemic drugs), mitosis arresting drugs (colchicine, taxanes), and biological agents, especially ipilimumab, are discussed. Some AGIDs' histopathologic features can be easily recognized. It is however the clinical correlation that in many cases of AGIDs will provide the necessary support for a drug effect diagnosis. The identification of AGIDs requires heightened awareness of the medical team in which close collaboration of pathologists and clinicians cannot be overemphasized. © The Author(s) 2013.


Gatius Caldero S.,Hospital Arnau Of Vilanova | Xiao S.-Y.,University of Chicago | Dhungel B.M.,Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Referral Hospital
International Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2014

In keeping with the stated goal of providing the surgical pathologist with tools to recognize abnormalities of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract due to drugs (AGIDS), in part II of this review we embark in a more organ-based description of AGIDS. Adequate space is given to the numerous adverse gastrointestinal effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Pill esophagitis, esophagitis dissecans, proton pump inhibitors' effects, diaphragm disease, and the recently described effects of drugs such as olmesartan, mycophenolate, and of compounds such as yttrium-90 are highlighted among several others. The inclusion of drug effects in the differential diagnosis of "conventional" diseases (such as gastric antral vascular ectasia, graft-versus-host disease, ischemic colitis, acute colitis, collagenous enteritis, inflammatory bowel disease) is underscored to avoid sometimes significant diagnostic pitfalls. We reiterate the message of the necessary collaboration between pathologist and clinician in the recognition of these entities to provide the best patient care. © The Author(s) 2013.


Giri B.R.,Internal Medicine | Sharma K.P.,Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Referral Hospital | Chapagai R.N.,Statistician Ministry of Health | Palzom D.,Statistician Ministry of Health
Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Bhutan is a mountainous country with 31% urban population. There is no information on prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in Bhutan yet. This was the first study of its kind conducted in the capital city. Objective: To determine prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and hypertension in urban Bhutanese population aged 25 to 74 years. Materials and Methods: Stratified two-stage sampling was adopted to include 2474 respondents (Males: 1132, Females: 1342) equally distributed among different age and sex groups. A questionnaire containing demographic, educational and social details and history of diabetes and hypertension was administered on the sampled population the previous evening and blood pressure measured the next morning in nearby camp where fasting blood samples were collected and an oral glucose tolerance test done. Results: Age and sex standardized prevalence of diabetes, IGT and IFG were 8.2.0, 21.6 and 4%, respectively. Only 66.5% of the population had normal blood sugar. Prevalence of diabetes and IGT increased progressively with increasing age. Prevalence of hypertension was 26% (Males: 28.3%, Females: 23.2%). It was observed that 54.1% of diabetes population had hypertension. Conclusion: The study shows that not only is prevalence of diabetes and hypertension high in the urban Bhutanese but also there is a high diagnosis and treatment gap in these disorders.


Tshomo U.,Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Referral Hospital | Franceschi S.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Dorji D.,Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Referral Hospital | Baussano I.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | And 7 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in Bhutan, the first low/middle-income country to implement a national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme.Methods: To provide a robust baseline for future evaluations of vaccine effectiveness, cervical cell specimens were obtained from 2,505 women aged 18-69 years from the general population, and biopsies from 211 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) and 112 invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases. Samples were tested for HPV using GP5+/6+ PCR.Results: Among the general population, HPV prevalence was 26%, being highest (33%) in women ≤24 years, but remaining above 15% in all age-groups. Determinants of HPV included age, marital status, and number of sexual partners. Among the eight percent with cytological abnormalities, 24 CIN3 and 4 ICC were histologically confirmed. Even after additional testing with a sensitive E7 PCR, no infections with vaccine-targeted HPV types were detected in the few vaccinated women (n = 34) compared to 6% prevalence in unvaccinated women of similar age (p = 0 · 215).Conclusion: Based upon type-specific prevalence among biopsies, at least 70% of ICC in Bhutan are theoretically preventable by HPV16/18 vaccination, but screening programmes should be expanded among older women, who have an important underlying burden of CIN3 and ICC. © 2014 Tshomo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Referral Hospital, University of Toronto, Massachusetts General Hospital, Health science Center and Harvard University
Type: | Journal: Epilepsy & behavior : E&B | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to assess medication prescribing and patient-reported outcomes among people with epilepsy (PWE) in Bhutan and introduce criteria for evaluating unmet epilepsy care needs, particularly in resource-limited settings.People with epilepsy in Bhutan (National Referral Hospital, 2014-2015) completed a questionnaire, the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory (QOLIE-31), and an electroencephalogram (EEG). Management gap was the proportion of participants meeting any of six prespecified criteria based on best practices and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines.Among 253 participants (53% female, median: 24years), 93% (n=235) were treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Seventy-two percent (n=183) had active epilepsy (1 seizure in the prior year). At least one criterion was met by 55% (n=138) of participants, whereas the treatment gap encompassed only 5% (n=13). The criteria were the following: 1. Among 18 participants taking no AED, 72% (n=13) had active epilepsy. 2. Among 26 adults on subtherapeutic monotherapy, 46% (n=12) had active epilepsy. 3. Among 48 participants reporting staring spells, 56% (n=27) were treated with carbamazepine or phenytoin. 4. Among 101 female participants aged 14-40years, 23% (n=23) were treated with sodium valproate. 5. Among 67 participants reporting seizure-related injuries, 87% (n=58) had active epilepsy. 6. Among 111 participants with a QOLIE-31 score below 50/100, 77% (n=86) had active epilepsy. Years since first AED treatment (odds ratio: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.12) and epileptiform discharges on EEG (odds ratio: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.15, 3.29) were significantly associated with more criteria met.By defining the management gap, subpopulations at greatest need for targeted interventions may be prioritized, including those already taking AEDs.


Dorji D.,Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Referral Hospital | Dendup T.,Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Referral Hospital | Malaty H.M.,Baylor College of Medicine | Wangchuk K.,Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Referral Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Helicobacter | Year: 2014

Background: Bhutan is small mountainous country bordering India and China and consists of four geographic regions, west, east, central, and south. The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection and risk factors associated with in Bhutan are not previously studied. The World Health Organization reported the incidence of stomach cancer to be very high in Bhutan. Aim: We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the seroepidemiologic pattern of H. pylori among Bhutanese from the four regions with emphasis on water source and household sanitation. Methods: Between June and November 2012, blood samples from patients with complaints of dyspepsia were collected after obtaining an informed consent. Demographic information, occupation, family size living in the same household, consumption of betel nut, and aspects of household environment including type of latrines, source of drinking water were collected. All serum samples were tested for H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using MAGIWELL ELISA kit from United Biotech, USA. Results: Two hundred and forty-four patients between 17 and 75 years of age participated in the study, of them, 102 were men, and the mean age was 38 (±14.2) years. The overall prevalence of H. pylori among patients was 86% with no difference between men and women (90 vs 83%, respectively, p = .12). The prevalence was almost identical among all age groups: 81% at 17-20, 84% at 20-29, 93% at 30-39, 82% at 40-49, 87% at 50-59, and 82% at ≥60 years (p = .51). H. pylori prevalence was lower in the southern region of Bhutan (78%) compared with the central region (97%) (OR = 8.6; 95% CI = 1.1-55; p = .02), eastern region (91%) (OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.1-7.2, p = .004) or the western region (83%) (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 0.8-3.1, p = .07). The prevalence of H. pylori was significantly lower among household with less than 4 persons living in the same household. Source of drinking water, type of occupation, type of latrines, or consumption of betel nut showed no association with H. pylori prevalence. Logistic regression analysis revealed that residing region was the only significant variable. Conclusions: The high prevalence of antibodies to H. pylori among patients and in all groups could contribute to the high incident rate of gastric cancer in Bhutan. Crowded living condition and the residing region contribute to the variation of the prevalence of the infection. The lowest prevalence in southern part of the country could be due to the difference in the ethnicity as most of its population is of Indian and Nepal origin. Further data regarding H. pylori in Bhutan are critical to developing surveillance and prevention strategies for gastric cancer. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


De Petris G.,Mayo Clinic Arizona | Dhungel B.M.,Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Referral Hospital | Chen L.,Mayo Clinic Arizona | Chang Y.-H.H.,Mayo Clinic Arizona
International Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2014

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. The aim of the study was to determine the morphological features of CVID-associated gastric adenocarcinoma (CAGA) and of the background gastritis. The population of gastric cancer patients with CVID of Mayo Clinic in the period 2000-2010 was studied; 6 cases of CVID (2 males, 4 females, average age 47 years, age range 26-71 years) were found in 5793 patients with gastric cancer in the study period. Each patient underwent gastric resection for which histology slides were reviewed. Chronic gastritis variables, CVID-related findings, and features of the adenocarcinoma were recorded. CAGA was of intestinal type, with high number of intratumoral lymphocytes (ITLs). Cancer was diagnosed in younger patients than in the overall population of gastric cancer. Severe atrophic metaplastic pangastritis with extensive dysplasia was present in the background in 4 cases, with features of lymphocytic gastritis in 2 cases. Features of CVID (plasma cells paucity in 4 of 6 cases, lymphoid nodules prominent in four cases) could be detected. In summary, gastric adenocarcinoma at young age with ITLs, accompanied by atrophic metaplastic pangastritis, should alert the pathologist of the possibility of CAGA. It follows that, in presence of those characteristics, the search of CVID-associated abnormalities should be undertaken in the nonneoplastic tissues. © The Author(s) 2014.

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