Jigjiga University

Jijiga, Ethiopia

Jigjiga University

Jijiga, Ethiopia
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Seid M.A.,Jigjiga University | Seid M.A.,University of Basel | Kuhn N.J.,University of Basel | Fikre T.Z.,Jigjiga University
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2016

Pastoralism is rarely viewed as a major future form of land use, because of well- documented cases of rangeland degradation, attributed to irrational overstocking by pastoralists, and the subsequent losses of ecosystem services. However, pastoralists were actually encouraged to settle and adopt such strategies, copied from rangelands with higher and more reliable rainfall. This curtailed mobility resulted in a shift from opportunistic and extensive land use to more intensive and settled forms of use. The purpose of this review is to examine the link between pastoralism and the provision of ecosystem services by rangelands, focusing an biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration. Pastoralists employ several techniques to manage rangeland resources, including mobility, herding, corralling, grazing reserves and the use of fire. With these strategies, pastoralists have contributed to the enhancement of rangeland biodiversity and the long-term conservation of important wildlife habitats. Pastoralists also possess detailed knowledge of rangeland plants and their uses, which could be valuable in the assessment, conservation and utilisation of rangeland biodiversity. Similarly, traditional pastoral rangeland management practices, such as the use of seasonal grassland reserves and livestock mobility, influence vegetation composition, coverage and abundance in rangelands and offer tools for biomass and soil carbon restoration, contributing to the mitigation of climate change. However, various internal and external factors have curtailed traditional management practices and livestock mobility, breaking the co-evolved balance of vegetation, wildlife and land use, thus exposing rangeland to continued livestock pressure, which often leads to degradation. Ratherthan abandoning pastoralism, the revitalisation of traditional practices and indigenous knowledge is vital to secure sustainable livelihoods for millions of pastoralists and to maintain rangeland biodiversity and ecosystem services.


Abera T.,Jigjiga University | Thangavelu A.,Madras Veterinary College | Joy Chandran N.D.,Madras Veterinary College | Raja A.,Madras Veterinary College
BMC Veterinary Research | Year: 2014

Background: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an economically important disease of small ruminants such as sheep and goats. The disease is characterized by severe pyrexia, oculo-nasal discharge, pneumonia, necrosis and ulceration of the mucous membrane and inflammation of the gastro-intestinal tract leading to severe diarrhea. A SYBR Green I based real time RT-PCR targeting the N gene of PPRV has not been established for PPRV detection. Thus, the objective of present study was to develop highly sensitive N gene target SYBR Green I real time RT-PCR for specific detection and quantification of PPRV in clinical samples. A set of primers was designed to detect the nucleocapsid (N) gene of PPRV.Results: The assay exhibited high specificity as all the viruses which have clinical and structural similarities to PPRV including Canine distemper virus (CDV), Measles virus (MV), Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) failed to show an amplification signal. The lower detection limit of the assay was 5.11 copies/μl (Ct value of 33.67 ± 0.5) and 0.001 TCID50/ml (Ct value of 34.7 ± 0.5) based on plasmid copy number and tissue culture infectivity titre. The assay was 3-log more sensitive than the conventional RT-PCR. The coefficient of variation (CV) values for intra- and inter-assay variability were low, ranging from 0.32% - 2.31%, and 0.71% - 5.32%, respectively. To evaluate the performance of the newly developed assay, a total of 36 clinical samples suspected of PPR were screened for the presence of PPRV in parallel with conventional RT-PCR. The real time RT-PCR assay detected PPRV in 30 (83.3%) of clinical samples compared to 16 (44.4%) by conventional RT-PCR.Conclusions: The two-step SYBR Green I based real time RT-PCR assay reported here is highly sensitive, specific, reproducible and rapid for detection and quantification of PPRV nucleic acids. © 2014 Abera et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Background: Dermatoglyphic studies, particularly those arising from the Dutch Hunger Winter Families Cohort, indicate an involvement of prenatal epigenetic insults in type-2 diabetes. However, the exact orchestration of this association is not fully understood. Herein is described a meta-analysis performed based on a belief that such an approach could shed some light as to the role of genetic & epigenetic influences in the etiology of type-2 diabetes. Methodology/principal findings: The study incorporated reports identified from PubMed, Medline, & Google Scholar databases for eligible case-control studies that assessed dermatoglyphics in type-2 diabetes cases relative to controls. Over 44,000 fingerprints & 2300 palm prints from around 4400 individuals were included in the analysis. Decreased loops patterns [OR= 0.76; 95% CI= (0.59, 0.98)], increased non-loop patterns [OR= 1.31; 95% CI= (1.02, 1.68)], and reduced absolute finger ridge counts [OR= -0.19; 95% CI= (-0.33, -0.04)] were significant findings among the diabetic group. These results are indicative of mild developmental deviances, with epigenetic insults significantly linked to early gestation wherein critical events &signaling pathways of the endocrine pancreas development are witnessed. Further, the increased loop patterns with decreased non-loop patterns were deemed as possible indicators of decreased genomic heterozygosity with concurrently increased homozygosity in the diabetic group, linked to reduced buffering capacities during prenatal development. Conclusions: Epigenetic insults primarily during the 1 st trimester, to a lesser extent between the early-to-mid 2 ndtrimester, but least likely linked to those beyond the mid-second trimester are evident in type-2 diabetes. It is recommended that future research aimed at expounding the prenatal origins of T2DM, as well as developing novel therapeutic methods, should focus on the early stages of endocrine pancreatic development. © 2015 Yohannes S.


Alebie G.,Jigjiga University | Urga B.,P.A. College | Worku A.,Jigjiga University
Malaria Journal | Year: 2017

Background: Ethiopia is endowed with abundant medicinal plant resources and traditional medicinal practices. However, available research evidence on indigenous anti-malarial plants is highly fragmented in the country. The present systematic review attempted to explore, synthesize and compile ethno-medicinal research evidence on anti-malarial medicinal plants in Ethiopia. Methods: A systematic web search analysis and review was conducted on research literature pertaining to medicinal plants used for traditional malaria treatment in Ethiopia. Data were collected from a total of 82 Ethiopian studies meeting specific inclusion criteria including published research articles and unpublished thesis reports. SPSS Version 16 was used to summarize relevant ethno-botanical/medicinal information using descriptive statistics, frequency, percentage, tables, and bar graphs. Results: A total of 200 different plant species (from 71 families) used for traditional malaria treatment were identified in different parts of Ethiopia. Distribution and usage pattern of anti-malarial plants showed substantial variability across different geographic settings. A higher diversity of anti-malarial plants was reported from western and southwestern parts of the country. Analysis of ethno-medicinal recipes indicated that mainly fresh leaves were used for preparation of remedies. Decoction, concoction and eating/chewing were found to be the most frequently employed herbal remedy preparation methods. Notably, anti-malarial herbal remedies were administered by oral route. Information on potential side effects of anti-malarial herbal preparations was patchy. However, some anti-malarial plants were reported to have potentially serious side effects using different local antidotes and some specific contra-indications. Conclusion: The study highlighted a rich diversity of indigenous anti-malarial medicinal plants with equally divergent herbal remedy preparation and use pattern in Ethiopia. Baseline information gaps were observed in key geographic settings. Likewise, herbal remedy toxicity risks and countermeasures generally entailed more exhaustive investigation. Experimental research and advanced chemical analysis are also required to validate the therapeutic potential of anti-malarial compounds from promising plant species. © 2017 The Author(s).


Shaik M.R.,JigJiga University | Reddy A.S.,CMR Engineering College
International Conference on Signal Processing, Communication, Power and Embedded System, SCOPES 2016 - Proceedings | Year: 2017

In modern power systems, due to uncertainty of the load curves and irregular power transfers between various utilities and loads creates block out situations. In these situations the Flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) controllers play an important role in power system security enhancement. However, these controllers must be placed optimally due to their high capital investment. FACTS devices can regulate the active and reactive power control as well as adaptive to voltage-magnitude control simultaneously because of their flexibility and fast control characteristics. Placement of these devices at optimal location can lead to control in line flow and maintain bus voltages at required level and so improve the voltage profile, to improve load transfer capability, decreasing the losses in the system and operate the system within stable regions. This paper proposes a systematic method for finding optimal location of STATCOM to improve voltage profile of a power system with Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Algorithm. An Optimal Power Flow with and without STATCOM using ABC algorithm is considered for simulation and compared with existing literature. Effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated on IEEE 30-bus test system. © 2016 IEEE.


Shaik M.R.,JigJiga University | Reddy A.S.,CMR Engineering College
International Conference on Signal Processing, Communication, Power and Embedded System, SCOPES 2016 - Proceedings | Year: 2017

Inpower systems because of uncertainty of the load curve and transfer of power between various utilities and loads block out situations will be created. In these situations the Flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) controllers play an important role in power system security enhancement. As the capital cost of these controllers is high, these controllers must be placed optimally. FACTS devices can regulate the active and reactive power control as well as adaptive to voltage-magnitude control simultaneously because of their flexibility and fast control characteristics. Placement of these devices at optimal location can lead to control in line flow and maintain bus voltages at required level and so improve the voltage profile, to improve load transfer capability, decreasing the losses in the system and operate the system within stable regions. This paper proposes a systematic method for finding optimal location of SVC to improve voltage profile of a power system under normal conditions and under contingency conditions with Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Algorithm. An OPF with/without SVC using ABC algorithm is considered for healthy conditions and also for contingency conditions in simulation and compared with existing literature. Effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated on IEEE 30-bus test system. © 2016 IEEE.


Alebie G.,Jigjiga University | Erko B.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Aemero M.,P.A. College | Petros B.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2014

Background: The epidemiology of schistosomiasis is well documented and its geographic distribution has been mapped and there is an ongoing mapping in Ethiopia. Nevertheless, new transmission foci have been discovered in different parts of the country. The objective of this study was to assess the establishment of transmission and determine the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in school children from Sanja Town, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional parasitological survey involving 384 school children in two primary schools of Sanja Town was conducted between February and April 2013. Stool specimens were collected and microscopically examined using Kato-Katz and Sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF) concentration methods. Malacological survey was also carried out to identify snail intermediate hosts and larval infection rate in the snail. The snails collected were checked for trematode infection by shedding. Observation was also made on water contact habits of the study population. Results: The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection using Kato-Katz method was high among male (79.5%) children in Sanja Primary school while it was high among female (75%) children in Ewket Amba Primary school. The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection among Sanja Primary school children in the age groups 5-9 and 10-14 years were 84.6% and 75.2%, respectively while in Ewket Amba Primary school, the prevalence was 66% and 77.9% in the age groups 5-9 and 10-14 years respectively. The prevalence of schistosome infection in Biomphalaria pfeifferi was 16.9% and 0.027% during February and April, respectively. S. mansoni infection was successfully established in laboratory mice and adult worms were harvested after six weeks of laboratory maintenance. Observations made on water contact activities showed swimming, bathing and washing in the river and the stream as the high risk activities for Schistosoma mansoni infection. Conclusion: The study has shown establishment of transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni in Sanja Town. Therefore, appropriate integrated control measures need to be introduced to reduce morbidity in the population and also to control the transmission of schistosomiasis in the study area. © 2014 Alebie et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Feyera T.,Jigjiga University | Terefe G.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Shibeshi W.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: African trypanosomiasis is a major disease of economic and public health importance affecting agricultural and human development. The search for alternative compounds against African trypanosomiasis is justified by various limitations of existing chemotherapeutic agents. This study was aimed at screening the hydromethanolic and dichloromethane (DCM) crude extracts of aerial parts of Artemisia abyssinica for in vivo antitrypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma congolense isolate in mice.Methods: The aerial parts of the plant were extracted by maceration technique using dichloromethane and 80% methanol to obtain the corresponding crude extracts. The plant extracts at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight were administered intraperitoneally daily for 7 days to mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense. Diminazene aceturate and distilled water were used as positive and as negative controls respectively. The level of parasitaemia, body weight, packed cell volume, differential leukocyte counts and mean survival period were monitored.Results: The study showed that the DCM extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg, and the hydromethanolic extract at 400 mg/kg reduced parasitaemia (p < 0.05), ameliorated anaemia (p < 0.05), prevented body weight loss (p < 0.05) and resulted in significant increase in neutrophil levels (p < 0.05) and marked decrease in lymphocyte levels (p < 0.05) compared to the negative control.Conclusions: This study established that aerial parts of A. abyssinica have antitrypanosomal potential and can be considered a potential source of new drugs for the treatment of tropical diseases caused by trypanosomes. © 2014 Feyera et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Yohannes S.,Jigjiga University | Bekele E.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The manifestation of ethnic, blood type, & gender-wise population variations regarding Dermatoglyphic manifestations are of interest to assess intra-group diversity and differentiation. The present study reports on the analysis of qualitaive and quantitative finger Dermatoglyphic traits of 382 individuals cross-sectionally sampled from an administrative region of Ethiopia, consisting of five ethnic cohorts from the Afro-Asiatic & Nilo-Saharan affiliations. These Dermatoglyphic parameters were then applied in the assessment of diversity & differentiation, including Heterozygosity, Fixation, Panmixia, Wahlund's variance, Nei's measure of genetic diversity, and thumb & finger pattern genotypes, which were inturn used in homology inferences as summarized by a Neighbour-Joining tree constructed from Nei's standard genetic distance. Results revealed significant correlation between Dermatoglyphics & population parameters that were further found to be in concordance with the historical accounts of the ethnic groups. Such inductions as the ancient north-eastern presence and subsequent admixure events of the Oromos (PII= 15.01), the high diversity of the Amharas (H= 0.1978, F= 0.6453, and P= 0.4144), and the Nilo-Saharan origin of the Berta group (PII= 10.66) are evidences to this. The study has further tested the possibility of applying Dermatoglyphics in population genetic & anthropologic research, highlighting on the prospect of developing a method to trace back population origins & ancient movement patterns. Additionally, linguistic clustering was deemed significant for the Ethiopian population, coinciding with recent genome wide studies that have ascertained that linguistic clustering as to being more crucial than the geographical patterning in the Ethiopian context. Finally, Dermatoglyphic markers have been proven to be endowed with a strong potential as non-invasive preliminary tools applicable prior to genetic studies to analyze ethnically sub-divided populations and also to reveal the stratification mechanism in play. © 2015 Yohannes, Bekele. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Bewket W.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Abebe S.,Jigjiga University
International Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2013

This study analysed long-term land-use and land-cover change (LUCC) in a highland watershed covering an area of about 154 km2 in the Blue Nile basin of Ethiopia. Two sets of panchromatic aerial photographs (1957 and 1982) and a Landsat TM image (2001) were the main input data from which three land-use and land-cover maps were produced by employing geographical information systems/remote sensing techniques. These data were complemented by some socio-economic data that were generated by using household survey, key-informant interview and group discussion methods. The results show that in regard to land-use and land-cover, the major change has been the reduction of areas under natural vegetation cover and expansion of open grassland, cultivated areas and settlements. Over the four and a half decades considered, areas of forest and dense tree cover and shrub grassland decreased by 64 and 6%, respectively. Forest and dense tree cover experienced the greatest change; from accounting for ~9% of the total area of the watershed in 1957 to only ~3% in 2001. In general, much of the de-vegetation occurred between 1982 and 2001. Cropland and rural settlement showed a small but consistent increase between 1957 and 2001. Riparian vegetation decreased during the first period, but increased almost to the same level during the second period by gaining land from the other land-use and land-cover types. The observed LUCCs were driven by a combination of proximate and underlying causes. These include increasing demographic pressure and associated demands on environmental resources, widespread rural poverty and inadequate management of common property resources owing to poorly defined ownership arrangements. There is a need for short-term and long-term strategies to ensure sustainable land management and agricultural development in the watershed. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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