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Jijiga, Ethiopia

Gebreyesus G.,Jigjiga University | Haile A.,ICARDA | Dessie T.,ILRI
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

Characterization of the Short-eared Somali goat population around Dire Dawa, Ethiopia, was undertaken in a community-based and participatory approach. Range of participatory tools, including Focal Group Discussions, participatory mappings and transect walks, were employed to study the local community's Indigenous knowledge and practices in animal breeding. The breeding objective was defined in a participatory manner through own-flock ranking experiments. Physical description of the goat population was made based on the "key characteristics" concept used by the community to distinguish their goat type among other breeds within their migratory reach. The Issa community maintains a perception of special association towards the Short-eared Somali goat type, claiming a historic role in its development and adaptation. Local myths persistent in the community associate the origin of the Short-eared Somali goat breed with the communal ethno-history. The community generally practices selective pure breeding employing rather complex indigenous knowledge and traditional practices aimed at polishing the gene pool towards the dictates of the environment. Patchy color patterns were generally dominant (59.8%) in the goat population, while 34% of the patched goats had a unique pattern of black spots on the center core of the face and a black stripe across the spine. Goats were kept for multifaceted purposes ranging from products like milk and meat to functions in socio-cultural and financial state of affairs. The production system was characterized with lack of feed supplementation and rangelands provide the only source of feed throughout the year. Although the production environment was characterized with recurrent droughts and high prevalence of goat diseases, goats were found to have significant contributions to the livelihood of the Issa pastoralists in the study area. Source

Alebie G.,Jigjiga University | Erko B.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Aemero M.,P.A. College | Petros B.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2014

Background: The epidemiology of schistosomiasis is well documented and its geographic distribution has been mapped and there is an ongoing mapping in Ethiopia. Nevertheless, new transmission foci have been discovered in different parts of the country. The objective of this study was to assess the establishment of transmission and determine the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in school children from Sanja Town, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional parasitological survey involving 384 school children in two primary schools of Sanja Town was conducted between February and April 2013. Stool specimens were collected and microscopically examined using Kato-Katz and Sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF) concentration methods. Malacological survey was also carried out to identify snail intermediate hosts and larval infection rate in the snail. The snails collected were checked for trematode infection by shedding. Observation was also made on water contact habits of the study population. Results: The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection using Kato-Katz method was high among male (79.5%) children in Sanja Primary school while it was high among female (75%) children in Ewket Amba Primary school. The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection among Sanja Primary school children in the age groups 5-9 and 10-14 years were 84.6% and 75.2%, respectively while in Ewket Amba Primary school, the prevalence was 66% and 77.9% in the age groups 5-9 and 10-14 years respectively. The prevalence of schistosome infection in Biomphalaria pfeifferi was 16.9% and 0.027% during February and April, respectively. S. mansoni infection was successfully established in laboratory mice and adult worms were harvested after six weeks of laboratory maintenance. Observations made on water contact activities showed swimming, bathing and washing in the river and the stream as the high risk activities for Schistosoma mansoni infection. Conclusion: The study has shown establishment of transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni in Sanja Town. Therefore, appropriate integrated control measures need to be introduced to reduce morbidity in the population and also to control the transmission of schistosomiasis in the study area. © 2014 Alebie et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Kumar Vemuri P.,Koneru Lakshmaiah College of Engineering | Veeravalli S.,Jigjiga University
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Background: Over the past century, the areas of genomics, proteomics and lipidomics have captured the attention of investigators worldwide. Carbohydrates, have recently received increased attention through the expanding field of glycobiology; probably because they are very complex and not encoded in the genome. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to express and purify recombinant human galectin 3 via the Pichia pastoris expression system. Materials and Methods: cDNA of human galectin3 gene was amplified with specific primers and cloned into a pcDNA3.1 vector with His-tag for easier purification using Ni2 and chromatography. Furthermore, galectin3 was purified to homogeneity and confirmed using SDS-PAGE and western blotting. Results: The protein band corresponding to 29 kDa was excised from the gels, digested with trypsin and processed for mass spectrometric analysis by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization- Time of Flight Mass Spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS), using a Reflex III instrument. Conclusions: Tryptic digest analysis clearly revealed that the purified protein was indeed galectin3. Similarly, the biological activity of recombinant galectin3 was confirmed using the hemagglutination inhibition assay. © 2014, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology; Published by Kowsar Corp. Source

Feyera T.,Jigjiga University | Terefe G.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Shibeshi W.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: African trypanosomiasis is a major disease of economic and public health importance affecting agricultural and human development. The search for alternative compounds against African trypanosomiasis is justified by various limitations of existing chemotherapeutic agents. This study was aimed at screening the hydromethanolic and dichloromethane (DCM) crude extracts of aerial parts of Artemisia abyssinica for in vivo antitrypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma congolense isolate in mice.Methods: The aerial parts of the plant were extracted by maceration technique using dichloromethane and 80% methanol to obtain the corresponding crude extracts. The plant extracts at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight were administered intraperitoneally daily for 7 days to mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense. Diminazene aceturate and distilled water were used as positive and as negative controls respectively. The level of parasitaemia, body weight, packed cell volume, differential leukocyte counts and mean survival period were monitored.Results: The study showed that the DCM extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg, and the hydromethanolic extract at 400 mg/kg reduced parasitaemia (p < 0.05), ameliorated anaemia (p < 0.05), prevented body weight loss (p < 0.05) and resulted in significant increase in neutrophil levels (p < 0.05) and marked decrease in lymphocyte levels (p < 0.05) compared to the negative control.Conclusions: This study established that aerial parts of A. abyssinica have antitrypanosomal potential and can be considered a potential source of new drugs for the treatment of tropical diseases caused by trypanosomes. © 2014 Feyera et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Yohannes S.,Jigjiga University | Bekele E.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The manifestation of ethnic, blood type, & gender-wise population variations regarding Dermatoglyphic manifestations are of interest to assess intra-group diversity and differentiation. The present study reports on the analysis of qualitaive and quantitative finger Dermatoglyphic traits of 382 individuals cross-sectionally sampled from an administrative region of Ethiopia, consisting of five ethnic cohorts from the Afro-Asiatic & Nilo-Saharan affiliations. These Dermatoglyphic parameters were then applied in the assessment of diversity & differentiation, including Heterozygosity, Fixation, Panmixia, Wahlund's variance, Nei's measure of genetic diversity, and thumb & finger pattern genotypes, which were inturn used in homology inferences as summarized by a Neighbour-Joining tree constructed from Nei's standard genetic distance. Results revealed significant correlation between Dermatoglyphics & population parameters that were further found to be in concordance with the historical accounts of the ethnic groups. Such inductions as the ancient north-eastern presence and subsequent admixure events of the Oromos (PII= 15.01), the high diversity of the Amharas (H= 0.1978, F= 0.6453, and P= 0.4144), and the Nilo-Saharan origin of the Berta group (PII= 10.66) are evidences to this. The study has further tested the possibility of applying Dermatoglyphics in population genetic & anthropologic research, highlighting on the prospect of developing a method to trace back population origins & ancient movement patterns. Additionally, linguistic clustering was deemed significant for the Ethiopian population, coinciding with recent genome wide studies that have ascertained that linguistic clustering as to being more crucial than the geographical patterning in the Ethiopian context. Finally, Dermatoglyphic markers have been proven to be endowed with a strong potential as non-invasive preliminary tools applicable prior to genetic studies to analyze ethnically sub-divided populations and also to reveal the stratification mechanism in play. © 2015 Yohannes, Bekele. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

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