Jijiga, Ethiopia
Jijiga, Ethiopia

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Gebreyesus G.,Jigjiga University | Haile A.,ICARDA | Dessie T.,ILRI
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

Characterization of the Short-eared Somali goat population around Dire Dawa, Ethiopia, was undertaken in a community-based and participatory approach. Range of participatory tools, including Focal Group Discussions, participatory mappings and transect walks, were employed to study the local community's Indigenous knowledge and practices in animal breeding. The breeding objective was defined in a participatory manner through own-flock ranking experiments. Physical description of the goat population was made based on the "key characteristics" concept used by the community to distinguish their goat type among other breeds within their migratory reach. The Issa community maintains a perception of special association towards the Short-eared Somali goat type, claiming a historic role in its development and adaptation. Local myths persistent in the community associate the origin of the Short-eared Somali goat breed with the communal ethno-history. The community generally practices selective pure breeding employing rather complex indigenous knowledge and traditional practices aimed at polishing the gene pool towards the dictates of the environment. Patchy color patterns were generally dominant (59.8%) in the goat population, while 34% of the patched goats had a unique pattern of black spots on the center core of the face and a black stripe across the spine. Goats were kept for multifaceted purposes ranging from products like milk and meat to functions in socio-cultural and financial state of affairs. The production system was characterized with lack of feed supplementation and rangelands provide the only source of feed throughout the year. Although the production environment was characterized with recurrent droughts and high prevalence of goat diseases, goats were found to have significant contributions to the livelihood of the Issa pastoralists in the study area.


Alebie G.,Jigjiga University | Erko B.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Aemero M.,P.A. College | Petros B.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2014

Background: The epidemiology of schistosomiasis is well documented and its geographic distribution has been mapped and there is an ongoing mapping in Ethiopia. Nevertheless, new transmission foci have been discovered in different parts of the country. The objective of this study was to assess the establishment of transmission and determine the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in school children from Sanja Town, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional parasitological survey involving 384 school children in two primary schools of Sanja Town was conducted between February and April 2013. Stool specimens were collected and microscopically examined using Kato-Katz and Sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF) concentration methods. Malacological survey was also carried out to identify snail intermediate hosts and larval infection rate in the snail. The snails collected were checked for trematode infection by shedding. Observation was also made on water contact habits of the study population. Results: The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection using Kato-Katz method was high among male (79.5%) children in Sanja Primary school while it was high among female (75%) children in Ewket Amba Primary school. The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection among Sanja Primary school children in the age groups 5-9 and 10-14 years were 84.6% and 75.2%, respectively while in Ewket Amba Primary school, the prevalence was 66% and 77.9% in the age groups 5-9 and 10-14 years respectively. The prevalence of schistosome infection in Biomphalaria pfeifferi was 16.9% and 0.027% during February and April, respectively. S. mansoni infection was successfully established in laboratory mice and adult worms were harvested after six weeks of laboratory maintenance. Observations made on water contact activities showed swimming, bathing and washing in the river and the stream as the high risk activities for Schistosoma mansoni infection. Conclusion: The study has shown establishment of transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni in Sanja Town. Therefore, appropriate integrated control measures need to be introduced to reduce morbidity in the population and also to control the transmission of schistosomiasis in the study area. © 2014 Alebie et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Feyera T.,Jigjiga University | Terefe G.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Shibeshi W.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: African trypanosomiasis is a major disease of economic and public health importance affecting agricultural and human development. The search for alternative compounds against African trypanosomiasis is justified by various limitations of existing chemotherapeutic agents. This study was aimed at screening the hydromethanolic and dichloromethane (DCM) crude extracts of aerial parts of Artemisia abyssinica for in vivo antitrypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma congolense isolate in mice.Methods: The aerial parts of the plant were extracted by maceration technique using dichloromethane and 80% methanol to obtain the corresponding crude extracts. The plant extracts at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight were administered intraperitoneally daily for 7 days to mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense. Diminazene aceturate and distilled water were used as positive and as negative controls respectively. The level of parasitaemia, body weight, packed cell volume, differential leukocyte counts and mean survival period were monitored.Results: The study showed that the DCM extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg, and the hydromethanolic extract at 400 mg/kg reduced parasitaemia (p < 0.05), ameliorated anaemia (p < 0.05), prevented body weight loss (p < 0.05) and resulted in significant increase in neutrophil levels (p < 0.05) and marked decrease in lymphocyte levels (p < 0.05) compared to the negative control.Conclusions: This study established that aerial parts of A. abyssinica have antitrypanosomal potential and can be considered a potential source of new drugs for the treatment of tropical diseases caused by trypanosomes. © 2014 Feyera et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Yohannes S.,Jigjiga University | Bekele E.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The manifestation of ethnic, blood type, & gender-wise population variations regarding Dermatoglyphic manifestations are of interest to assess intra-group diversity and differentiation. The present study reports on the analysis of qualitaive and quantitative finger Dermatoglyphic traits of 382 individuals cross-sectionally sampled from an administrative region of Ethiopia, consisting of five ethnic cohorts from the Afro-Asiatic & Nilo-Saharan affiliations. These Dermatoglyphic parameters were then applied in the assessment of diversity & differentiation, including Heterozygosity, Fixation, Panmixia, Wahlund's variance, Nei's measure of genetic diversity, and thumb & finger pattern genotypes, which were inturn used in homology inferences as summarized by a Neighbour-Joining tree constructed from Nei's standard genetic distance. Results revealed significant correlation between Dermatoglyphics & population parameters that were further found to be in concordance with the historical accounts of the ethnic groups. Such inductions as the ancient north-eastern presence and subsequent admixure events of the Oromos (PII= 15.01), the high diversity of the Amharas (H= 0.1978, F= 0.6453, and P= 0.4144), and the Nilo-Saharan origin of the Berta group (PII= 10.66) are evidences to this. The study has further tested the possibility of applying Dermatoglyphics in population genetic & anthropologic research, highlighting on the prospect of developing a method to trace back population origins & ancient movement patterns. Additionally, linguistic clustering was deemed significant for the Ethiopian population, coinciding with recent genome wide studies that have ascertained that linguistic clustering as to being more crucial than the geographical patterning in the Ethiopian context. Finally, Dermatoglyphic markers have been proven to be endowed with a strong potential as non-invasive preliminary tools applicable prior to genetic studies to analyze ethnically sub-divided populations and also to reveal the stratification mechanism in play. © 2015 Yohannes, Bekele. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Bewket W.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Abebe S.,Jigjiga University
International Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2013

This study analysed long-term land-use and land-cover change (LUCC) in a highland watershed covering an area of about 154 km2 in the Blue Nile basin of Ethiopia. Two sets of panchromatic aerial photographs (1957 and 1982) and a Landsat TM image (2001) were the main input data from which three land-use and land-cover maps were produced by employing geographical information systems/remote sensing techniques. These data were complemented by some socio-economic data that were generated by using household survey, key-informant interview and group discussion methods. The results show that in regard to land-use and land-cover, the major change has been the reduction of areas under natural vegetation cover and expansion of open grassland, cultivated areas and settlements. Over the four and a half decades considered, areas of forest and dense tree cover and shrub grassland decreased by 64 and 6%, respectively. Forest and dense tree cover experienced the greatest change; from accounting for ~9% of the total area of the watershed in 1957 to only ~3% in 2001. In general, much of the de-vegetation occurred between 1982 and 2001. Cropland and rural settlement showed a small but consistent increase between 1957 and 2001. Riparian vegetation decreased during the first period, but increased almost to the same level during the second period by gaining land from the other land-use and land-cover types. The observed LUCCs were driven by a combination of proximate and underlying causes. These include increasing demographic pressure and associated demands on environmental resources, widespread rural poverty and inadequate management of common property resources owing to poorly defined ownership arrangements. There is a need for short-term and long-term strategies to ensure sustainable land management and agricultural development in the watershed. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Kumar Vemuri P.,Koneru Lakshmaiah College of Engineering | Veeravalli S.,Jigjiga University
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Background: Over the past century, the areas of genomics, proteomics and lipidomics have captured the attention of investigators worldwide. Carbohydrates, have recently received increased attention through the expanding field of glycobiology; probably because they are very complex and not encoded in the genome. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to express and purify recombinant human galectin 3 via the Pichia pastoris expression system. Materials and Methods: cDNA of human galectin3 gene was amplified with specific primers and cloned into a pcDNA3.1 vector with His-tag for easier purification using Ni2 and chromatography. Furthermore, galectin3 was purified to homogeneity and confirmed using SDS-PAGE and western blotting. Results: The protein band corresponding to 29 kDa was excised from the gels, digested with trypsin and processed for mass spectrometric analysis by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization- Time of Flight Mass Spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS), using a Reflex III instrument. Conclusions: Tryptic digest analysis clearly revealed that the purified protein was indeed galectin3. Similarly, the biological activity of recombinant galectin3 was confirmed using the hemagglutination inhibition assay. © 2014, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology; Published by Kowsar Corp.


Gebremedhin E.Z.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Yunus H.A.,Mizan Tepi University | Tesfamaryam G.,Jigjiga University | Tessema T.S.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | And 4 more authors.
BMC Veterinary Research | Year: 2014

Background: Toxoplasmosis is a major public health concern in many countries of the world. A cross-sectional and follow up experimental study designs were used for seroepidemiological and bioassay studies, respectively from November 2012 to April 2013. The objectives were to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection, to assess risk factors and to isolate the parasite from camels in the Fentale district, Ethiopia. A direct agglutination test (DAT) and indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits were used to test camel sera. Hearts and tongues (each 25 g) from 31 seropositive camels were bioassayed in mice. Associations between seroprevalence and potential risk factors (collected using a questionnaire survey) were analyzed using logistic regression. Results: An overall T. gondii prevalence of 49.62% (220/455) by DAT and 40.49% (179/451) by indirect ELISA test were detected. Herd level seroprevalence of 96.77% (30/31) (95% CI: 83.30-99.92) by DAT was recorded and it was significantly higher in areas where wild felids are present (P = 0.038). Multivariable logistic regression showed that the likelihood of acquiring T. gondii infection was significantly higher in camels in the Ilala pastoral association [PA] (82.26%) (Adjusted Odds ratio [aOR] = 10.8; P < 0.001) than camels in the Galcha PA (31.43%), in camels of ≥ 8 years old (56.52%; aOR = 1.88; P = 0,033) than camels of ≤ 4 years old (34.26%) and in areas where domestic cats are present (aOR = 4.16; P = 0.006). All camel owners were uneducated, handle aborted fetus with bare hands, and drink raw camel milk. DAT and ELISA tests had moderate agreement (Kappa = 0.41). Viable T. gondii were isolated from 16.13% (5/31) of DAT positive camels. One DAT positive but ELISA negative camel sample gave a cyst positive result. Conclusions: T. gondii infection of camels in the study district is widespread. Age, presence of domestic cats and study PA are independent predictors of T. gondii seropositivity. Isolation of viable parasites from edible tissues of camels and the very poor knowledge of pastoralists about toxoplasmosis suggest the need for prevention of toxoplasmosis through bio-security measures, education and further investigation to unravel the impact of camel toxoplasmosis deserves consideration. © 2014 Gebremedhin et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Addis Ababa Institute of Technology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Jigjiga University
Type: | Journal: Acta tropica | Year: 2016

Visceral leishmaniasis is a significant public health problem in northwest Ethiopia, particularly in Kafta Humera district. The study was designed to determine the species composition and population dynamics of sand flies in five villages representing urban and semi-urban areas of Kafta Humera district namely, Setit Humera, Mykadra, Rawyan, Bereket and Adebay. Sand flies were collected for two to three nights monthly from May 2011 to April 2012 using CDC light-traps and sticky traps. Traps were placed in villages, at periphery of villages and farm fields. Sticky traps were also used for sampling indoor active sand flies. In total, 13,097 sand fly specimens of eight Phlebotomus species and 91,949 Sergentomyia specimens were collected. Among the Phlebotomus, P. orientalis was the predominant species (58.1%) followed by P. papatasi (29.6%), P. lesleyae (5.6%), P. bergeroti (3.8%), P. duboscqi (2.1%), P. alexandri (0.4%), P. heischi (0.2%) and P. rodhaini (0.2%). Significantly, higher number of P. orientalis was caught in Adebay village and the least in Setit Humera town. Seasonal abundance of P. orientalis increased during the dry season (January-May) and dropped drastically in the wet season (late June-September). Significant positive correlation was found between monthly abundance of P. orientalis and the monthly average air and surface soil temperature, while a negative correlation was found with monthly average rainfall and relative humidity. Higher number of P. orientalis was collected outdoors, especially in the farm fields followed by periphery of villages. Thus, various observations strongly suggested P. orientalis to be the principal vector in the study areas, where farm lands and periphery of villages were identified as the most risky habitats, whereas the indoors were the least ones. Appropriate control methods should be designed and implemented according to the knowledge of P. orientalis habitat preferences and seasonal dynamics in the district.


PubMed | Jigjiga University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Ethiopian journal of health sciences | Year: 2016

Food safety problems are particularly becoming an increasingly serious threat to public health in developing countries. This study was conducted to assess microbiological safety of street vended foods from May to November, 2014 in Jigjiga City.A cross-sectional design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of food hygiene and sanitation practire of street food vending sites. Interview and observational assessments were used to collect socio-demographic data about street food venders. One hundred thirty-two samples of street foods were aseptically collected from four kebeles of Jigjiga City. Both descriptive and analytical statistical methods were applied.The majority of the street food vendors were women, 120(90.9%), with the average age group of 23-49 years, (42.85%), and 99(66.7%) them were illiterate. The study revealed that 95(72%) of the food samples had pathogenic bacterial contaminations. Three different bacterial species were isolated: E. coli 68(51.5%), S. aureus 85(64.4%) and 26(19.7%) Salmonella species. The highest incidence of S. aureus 23/33(69%) was seen in Sambusa; the highest incidence of E. coli 24/33(73.5%) was observed in Pasta, while the highest Salmonella incidence was observed in Ades.This study revealed that there is a reasonable gap on food safety knowledge among street food venders. The microbial profile was also higher compared to standards set by the World Health Organization. Due attention should be given by the government to improve knowledge about food safety and the quality standard of street foods sold in the City.


PubMed | Jigjiga University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2016

The study was conducted to determine the effects of dried foliage of Acacia senegal and Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree supplementations on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth, and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats. Twenty male intact short-eared Somali goat yearlings with an average live weight of 16.21.08 (MeanSD) were assigned to four treatment groups, which comprised a basal diet of hay alone (T1) and supplementation with the tree foliages. Supplements consisted Neem tree (T2), A. senegal (T3) and the mixture of the two (1:1 ratio; T4) dried foliages. The crude protein (CP) content of Neem tree foliage, A. senegal, and their mixture were 16.92, 17.5 and 17.01 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. Total DM intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter were significantly (P<0.001) higher for the supplemented groups. CP digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.01) for goats supplemented with Neem tree (72 %) and A. senegal (67 %). The final body weights were higher (P<0.05) for the goats supplemented with A. Senegal. An average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher (P<0.01) in supplemented groups. The hot carcass weight was higher in the group supplemented with A. senegal (8.3 kg) among the supplemented groups, all of which are higher than the control (4.9 kg). It is concluded that the supplementation with tree foliage, especially with A. senegal tree foliage, on grass hay encouraged a better utilization of nutrients and animal performance as compared to goats fed on a basal diet of grass hay only.

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